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Hallmarks of the teen years, ages 13-19: Growth spurt Rising hormonal levels (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, andr PowerPoint Presentation
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Hallmarks of the teen years, ages 13-19: Growth spurt Rising hormonal levels (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, andr

Hallmarks of the teen years, ages 13-19: Growth spurt Rising hormonal levels (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, andr

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Hallmarks of the teen years, ages 13-19: Growth spurt Rising hormonal levels (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, andr

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  1. What is Adolescence? • Hallmarks of the teen years, ages 13-19: • Growth spurt • Rising hormonal levels (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, androgen) • Menstruation and ejaculation begin • Girls develop breasts; boys develop hair on face, chest, voice deepens. • Pubic hair appears • Reproduction becomes possible • Interest in dating and sex increase • Abstract and scientific thinking appear • Teens question “Who am I?” “What will I do with my life?” • Initiation rites include confirmation, bar mitzvah, and graduation.

  2. 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Penis adult size; mature pubic hair Underarm, facial hair appearing; voice deepening Pubic hair appearing; penis enlarging Testes enlarging First ejaculation Age 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 4 Growth spurt peak 10 GIRLS BOYS 3 8 6 2 Height increase in centimeters Height increase in inches 4 1 2 Age Mature pubic hair Pubic hair appearing First menstruation Breast bud Underarm hair appearing Mature breast

  3. Adolescents' Reactions to the Onset of Puberty Time of Onset Early Late Reaction Initial Later Initial Later Male Positive Mixed Negative Positive Female Negative Positive Positive Mixed

  4. 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 12 - 17 Years 18 - 25 Years 26 - 34 Years 35 Years and older All Americans 12 Years and over Percent of Teenagers Using Illegal Drugs 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996

  5. One Out of Five Teenagers is Overweight TEENS ADULTS 15% 21% 25% 31% '76 - '80 '88 - '91 '76 - '80 '88 - '91 40% increase in proportion of overweight teens, over a 12-year period • Possible Causes: • Too much junk food • Too much TV watching • Lack of Exercise Source: National Center for Health Statistics (1994)

  6. FEATURES OF FORMAL OPERATIONAL THINKING • Attention to hypothetical ideas and possibilities • Scientific reasoning • Logical combination of ideas • Abstract thinking

  7. The Pendulum Problem A Piagetian test for formal operational thinking X 1 Y 2 Z 3 B C A • There are: • 3 weights (A, B, C) • 3 lengths of string (1, 2, 3) • 3 push positions (X, Y, Z) • Which makes the quickest arc? Source: Howard Gruber & J. Jacques Vonesce, The Essential Piaget. New York, Basic Books (1977).

  8. KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL JUDGMENT • PRECONVENTIONAL LEVEL (emphasis on avoiding punishments and getting awards) • Stage 1: Heteronomous morality; ethics of punishment and obedience • Stage 2: Instrumental purpose; ethics of market exchange • CONVENTIONAL LEVEL (emphasis on social rules) • Stage 3: Interpersonal conformity; ethics of peer opinion • Stage 4: Social system orientation: conformity to social system; ethics of law and order • POSTCONVENTIOANL LEVEL (emphasis on moral principles) • Stage 5: Social contract orientation; ethics of social contract and individual rights • Stage 6:Ethics of self-chosen universal principles

  9. Longitudinal Development of Moral Reasoning stage 1 stage 2 stage 3 stage 4 stage 5 70 60 50 Moral reasoning (percent) 40 30 20 10 0 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 Age (in Years)

  10. Gilligans's Stages of Moral Development Stage Features Stage 1 Survival orientation Stage 2 Conventional care Stage 3 Integrated care Egocentric concern for self, lack of awareness of others' needs; "right" action is what promotes emotional or physical survival Lack of distinction between what others want and what is right; "right" action is whatever pleases others best Coordination or integration of needs of self and of others; "right" action takes account of self as well as others

  11. Developmental Changes in Information Processing Control processes Environmental stimuli (input) Increased efficiency Long-term memory (LTM) Rehearsal Short-term memory (STM) Attention Greater specific expertise Greater knowledge about problem-solving Sensory register (SR) Organization Recognition Increased size Meaningfulness Response (output)

  12. Summary of Adolescent Physical Development • Growth spurt proceeds in distal-to-proximal direction • Hormones increase and puberty occurs • Girls mature earlier, on average, than boys • High risk for injury and death

  13. Summary of Adolescent Cognitive Development • Piaget’s formal operational stage • Scientific and abstract thinking develop • Information processing skills continue to improve • Moral development matures