What is Adolescence?
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Hallmarks of the teen years, ages 13-19: Growth spurt Rising hormonal levels (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, andr - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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What is Adolescence?. Hallmarks of the teen years, ages 13-19: Growth spurt Rising hormonal levels (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, androgen) Menstruation and ejaculation begin Girls develop breasts; boys develop hair on face, chest, voice deepens. Pubic hair appears

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What is Adolescence?

  • Hallmarks of the teen years, ages 13-19:

  • Growth spurt

  • Rising hormonal levels (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, androgen)

  • Menstruation and ejaculation begin

  • Girls develop breasts; boys develop hair on face, chest, voice deepens.

  • Pubic hair appears

  • Reproduction becomes possible

  • Interest in dating and sex increase

  • Abstract and scientific thinking appear

  • Teens question “Who am I?” “What will I do with my life?”

  • Initiation rites include confirmation, bar mitzvah, and graduation.


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8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

Penis adult size;

mature pubic

hair

Underarm, facial

hair appearing;

voice deepening

Pubic hair

appearing;

penis enlarging

Testes enlarging

First ejaculation

Age

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

4

Growth spurt peak

10

GIRLS

BOYS

3

8

6

2

Height increase in centimeters

Height increase in inches

4

1

2

Age

Mature

pubic hair

Pubic hair

appearing

First

menstruation

Breast bud

Underarm hair

appearing

Mature breast


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Adolescents' Reactions to the Onset of Puberty

Time of Onset

Early

Late

Reaction

Initial

Later

Initial

Later

Male

Positive

Mixed

Negative

Positive

Female

Negative

Positive

Positive

Mixed


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40

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

12 - 17 Years

18 - 25 Years

26 - 34 Years

35 Years and older

All Americans 12 Years and over

Percent of Teenagers Using Illegal Drugs

1978

1980

1982

1984

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996


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One Out of Five Teenagers is Overweight

TEENS

ADULTS

15%

21%

25%

31%

'76 - '80

'88 - '91

'76 - '80

'88 - '91

40% increase in proportion of overweight teens, over a 12-year period

  • Possible Causes:

  • Too much junk food

  • Too much TV watching

  • Lack of Exercise

Source: National Center for Health Statistics (1994)


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FEATURES OF FORMAL OPERATIONAL THINKING

  • Attention to hypothetical ideas and possibilities

  • Scientific reasoning

  • Logical combination of ideas

  • Abstract thinking


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The Pendulum Problem

A Piagetian test for formal operational thinking

X

1

Y

2

Z

3

B

C

A

  • There are:

    • 3 weights (A, B, C)

    • 3 lengths of string (1, 2, 3)

    • 3 push positions (X, Y, Z)

  • Which makes the quickest arc?

Source: Howard Gruber & J. Jacques Vonesce, The Essential Piaget. New York, Basic Books (1977).


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KOHLBERG'S STAGES OF MORAL JUDGMENT

  • PRECONVENTIONAL LEVEL (emphasis on avoiding punishments and getting awards)

  • Stage 1: Heteronomous morality; ethics of punishment and obedience

  • Stage 2: Instrumental purpose; ethics of market exchange

  • CONVENTIONAL LEVEL (emphasis on social rules)

  • Stage 3: Interpersonal conformity; ethics of peer opinion

  • Stage 4: Social system orientation: conformity to social system; ethics of law and order

  • POSTCONVENTIOANL LEVEL (emphasis on moral principles)

  • Stage 5: Social contract orientation; ethics of social contract and individual rights

  • Stage 6:Ethics of self-chosen universal principles


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Longitudinal Development of Moral Reasoning

stage 1

stage 2

stage 3

stage 4

stage 5

70

60

50

Moral reasoning (percent)

40

30

20

10

0

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

26

28

30

32

34

36

Age (in Years)


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Gilligans's Stages of Moral Development

Stage

Features

Stage 1 Survival orientation

Stage 2 Conventional care

Stage 3 Integrated care

Egocentric concern for self, lack of awareness of others' needs; "right" action is what promotes emotional or physical survival

Lack of distinction between what others want and what is right; "right" action is whatever pleases others best

Coordination or integration of needs of self and of others; "right" action takes account of self as well as others


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Developmental Changes in Information Processing

Control processes

Environmental stimuli

(input)

Increased efficiency

Long-term

memory

(LTM)

Rehearsal

Short-term

memory

(STM)

Attention

Greater

specific

expertise

Greater

knowledge

about problem-solving

Sensory

register

(SR)

Organization

Recognition

Increased

size

Meaningfulness

Response

(output)


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Summary of Adolescent Physical Development

  • Growth spurt proceeds in distal-to-proximal direction

  • Hormones increase and puberty occurs

  • Girls mature earlier, on average, than boys

  • High risk for injury and death


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Summary of Adolescent Cognitive Development

  • Piaget’s formal operational stage

  • Scientific and abstract thinking develop

  • Information processing skills continue to improve

  • Moral development matures


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