Vocab, People, and Terms for Manifest Destiny. 9.2-9.4. Manifest Destiny. Focal point of the whole unit Idea that America is destined to expand and settle all of the land west to the Pacific Coast This idea will have incredible (and disastrous for some) effects including…
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Manifest Destiny • Focal point of the whole unit • Idea that America is destined to expand and settle all of the land west to the Pacific Coast • This idea will have incredible (and disastrous for some) effects including… - Louisiana Purchase - Domination and relocation of Indian tribes - Mexican- American war (leads to taking almost half of Mexico’s territory) - Settlement of the Great Plains, Rocky Mountain west, and Pacific Coast. Destruction of the great buffalo and elk herds, and development of the land for cattle and crops. Was it America’s inherent right (destiny) to expand west? Or a made up idea to excuse the actions of the growing American empire? Need a preliminary response and we will revisit later on.
Treaty of Fort Laramie Overall Point: Gave an extensive amount of land in the central plains to Native American tribes (which would not be followed) • Indians were forced to relocate from the east and old Northwest (Wisconsin to Ohio) • Plains and Rocky Mountain Tribes were worried about their lands. • Treaty established a large territory for Indian tribes
Santa Fe Trail Started in Independence, Missouri and ended in Mexican province of New Mexico, traders would dash quickly along this trail to avoid Kiowa and Comanche Indian raiders on their way to Mexico and back
Oregon Trail Started in Independence, Missouri and ended in Portland; settlers traveled to find fertile land and a new life
Joseph Smith and Mormons aka Jesus Christ and the Church of Later Day Saints • A new American religion! - Started in New York by Joseph Smith (self proclaimed prophet) - Golden plates and new word of God - Smith picked up many followers and missionaries were sent out - Smith left with followers to Illinois - Many instances of hostilities between Mormons and locals (a mob would kill smith) - Mormons would split up: 1/3 went to Wisconsin and 2/3 went west
Mormons in Wisconsin (lake Michigan) - James Strang declares himself king of Beaver Island; would end up being shot to death on the USS Michigan - Some followers disbanded and melded back in American society, some would go back to the main Mormon band settled in Utah, a few pockets of Strang followers are around today.
Mormons in Utah • After Smith’s death Brigham Young decides to move his followers West - Looking for the promised land. - End up settling next to a giant salty lake Troubles with the U.S. government and nearby states would continue - War with Arizona - Polygamy (now not allowed in mainstream Mormonism) Today - Major force in America a. Fast growing religion b. Mitt Romney
Chapter 9 Section 3: Expansion in Texas • Land Grants were given out by the Mexican government to settle in their territory - Settlers were supposed to obey Mexican laws and practice Roman Catholicism
Stephen E. Austin: Leader of the Texan Revolutionaries • “Father of Texas” • Led the first settler American settler families into the Mexican territory • Was an Empresario- held title/authority over a large territory • Petition Mexican Gov’t several times for independent gov’t • When denied he led an organized rebellion against Mexican gov’t
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna • President of Mexico 11 separate times • After Santa Anna revoked local powers in Mexican states, several rebellions erupted including what would eventually become known as the Texan Revolution • Would end up leading Mexico in during the Mexican-American war
Alamo An abandoned fort that would be the famous last stand of 187 Texan rebels against the Mexican army. “Remember the Alamo” battle cry of the Texan Republic
Sam Houston • After the defeat of Texan rebels at the Alamo and Goliad Sam Houston led Texan revolutionaries to victory against the Mexican army at the Battle of San Jacinto • After the battle Texans set up the “Republic of Texas”
Annex- This means to incorporate and sometimes take a territory into another country • The United States upon request from the rebels will annex Texas, which will lead to the Mexican-American war.
James K. Polk • Supported American expansion and the Texan revolutionaries; he would lead America into the Mexican-American War • Many Northerners thought Polk wanted Texas because it would expand slave holding states.
Zachary Taylor • Along with Winfield Scott were the top Generals in the Mexican-American war, theyinvaded Mexico, never lost a battle, and took Mexico city • (Would later become President but died early on in his term from Cholera)
Forty-niners and the California gold rush • Shortly after the treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo gold was discovered in California at Sutter’s mill in the Sierra Nevada mountains • Prospectors rushed to California (49ers) • California’s population explodes from 1,000 in 1848 to over 100,000 in 1855. (today most populous state)