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The Relationship between Engineering & Architecture. References: The Tower and the Bridge by David Billington Bridging the Gap, Proceedings of the Building Arts Forum. Designers of Three Dimensional Public Spaces. Architects. Structural Engineers. Sculptors.

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The Relationship between Engineering & Architecture


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    1. The Relationship between Engineering&Architecture References: The Tower and the Bridge by David Billington Bridging the Gap, Proceedings of the Building Arts Forum

    2. Designers of Three Dimensional Public Spaces Architects StructuralEngineers Sculptors

    3. 3 Measures of Design Performance • Efficiency • Scientific Dimension • Use of Minimal Natural Resouces • Economy • Social Dimension • Use of Minimal Public Resources • Must Consider Material Costs & Constructability • Elegance • Symbolic Dimension • Aesthetic Motivation of the Designer

    4. Efficiency • Form Controls the Forces • Form Changes the Actions & Reactions

    5. Economy • Dependant upon Time & Place • Quantities are measurable but…labor & bidding process are not

    6. Nervi • A builder and designer of new forms • “..searching for solutions that were intrinsically and constructionally the most economic..”

    7. Constructability • Roebling • numerous dwgs & studies of construction methods

    8. Constructability • Eiffel • 5000 dwgs of parts & assembly techniques • close relationship w/ contractor • refinement of design • Pia Maria bridge -> Garabit Viaduct • Span: 165m, Material: wrought iron

    9. Constructability • Morandi • detailed investigations of construction process • Span: 100m, Rise: 20m, Ravine Depth: 110m

    10. Candela • Hyperbolic paraboloid concrete shells • “ ..the only way to be an artist in this difficult specialty of building is to be your own contractor.”

    11. Elegance • Aesthetic ideas can be traced back to Viollet le Duc, Entretiens, (1863, 1872) • Theories on the importance of structural expression and construction techniques

    12. Engineering v. Science • Engineering (Technology) is: • the making of things that did not previously exist • creation of specific objects • Science is: • the discovery of things that have long existed • creation of general theories that unify knowledge • To what extent does technological innovation flow from scientific discovery?

    13. Methodology • Scientific Analysis • Visual Analysis • Empirical Analysis

    14. Synthesis of Methodologies • ETH, Zurich, • Three Principles of Professor Ritter • importance of calculations, attempts to simplify analytical procedures • engineers have major responsibilities during construction • importance of full scale load tests

    15. Robert Maillart • evolution of three-hinged concrete arch bridges • visual & empirical methods Zuoz Bridge, 38.3m Stauffacher Bridge, 39.6m Tavanasa Bridge, 51m

    16. The Relationship between Engineering & Architecture • Schism • Collaboration • Synthesis

    17. Schism • separation between architect, engineer and constructor • pre-schism architect was the “Master Builder” ie Brunelleschi

    18. What Lead to the Schism: • Industrial Revolution introduced new materials, methods and aspirations • specialized schools were established • Ecole des Beaux Arts • ETH, Zurich • architectural curricula focused on: • visual methods • product • engineering curricula focused on: • numeric methods • process

    19. Role of the Architect Today • Venturi: “The Decorated Shed”

    20. Role of the Architect Today • Jorn Utzon, Sydney Opera House

    21. Role of the Architect Today • Owens Corning HQ:Toledo, OH • CMU CBPD team • exterior architect • interior architect • production drawing architect • curtainwall architect • engineering disciplines • construction manager

    22. Role of the Engineer Today • technician vs innovator • synthesis of scientific & empirical knowledge • debate is raging over appropriate curriculum

    23. De Menil Gallery: Piano & Rice

    24. Two Primary Definitions Of Design The many ways of describing design, which in turn need to make the assumption that what counts as a legitimate display of design knowledge has been ‘agreed upon’, has been partially rationalised by [Kees] Dorst. Dorst cast the debate as a dialectic between Simon’s rational problem-solving paradigm and Schön’s reflective practice approach. Willemien Visser “Design: one, but in different forms” (2008) slide from D.Willis, PSU

    25. Two Primary Definitions Of Design: Rational Problem-solving . . . The boundary between well-structured and ill-structured problem solving is indeed a vague and fluid boundary. . . there may be nothing other than the size of the knowledge base to distinguish ill-structured problems from well-structured problems, and that general problem-solving mechanisms . . . should be extendable to ill-structured domains without any need for introducing qualitatively new components. Herbert A. Simon “The Structure of Ill-structured Problems” Artificial Intelligence 4 (1973) slide from D.Willis, PSU

    26. Two Primary Definitions Of Design: Reflective Practice Conversely, Schön embraces the inherent complexity of design and regards purely rational approaches with their reductionist tendencies and emphasis on quantitative data as unable to cope with the realities of design in practice. The ‘reflective practitioner’ must apply knowledge and experience to each unique circumstance. Willemien Visser “Design: one, but in different forms” (2008) slide from D.Willis, PSU

    27. Schön Questions The Utility Of Any Particular Fixed Design Method Because the unique case falls outside of the categories of existing theory and technique, the practitioner cannot treat it as an instrumental problem to be solved by applying one set of rules in her store of professional knowledge. Donald Schön Educating the Reflective Practitioner (1987) slide from D.Willis, PSU

    28. A Continuum Based On Dominant Design Paradigm __________________________________________________ Rational problem-solvers Reflective practitioners “Simonists”“Schönians” Note: the choice of which paradigm to favor is not necessarily an informed one; for most design professionals, it is determined by education, culture and experience, rather than a systematic examination of the available data and theories. slide from D.Willis, PSU

    29. A Continuum Based On Dominant Design Paradigm ________________________________________________________ Rational problem-solvers Reflective practitioners “Simonists”“Schönians” Strong emphasis on methodology Weak emphasis on methodology Mass-production orientation Oriented to one-off artifacts Context idealized or ignored Context of paramount importance Efficiency stressed Efficiency a secondary concern slide from D.Willis, PSU

    30. Two Different Viewpoints • How does the understanding of space/ structure from two different viewpoints affect the project

    31. Kimball Art Museum: Kahn & Kommendant • Is it a Barrel Vaultor is it an Inverted “T”?

    32. Collaboration • a close working relationship between individuals from different backrounds • mutual respect • common vocabulary

    33. CCTV: Koolhaus + Arup

    34. Japan Pavilion Expo 2000: Buro Happold + Ban + Otto

    35. BMW Welt: Coop Himmelb(l)au + B&G

    36. Mercedes Museum: UN Studio + Werner Sobek

    37. Soumaya Museum: LAR + Fineout + Gehry Technologies

    38. Soumaya Museum: LAR + Fineout + Gehry Technologies

    39. Soumaya Museum: LAR + Fineout + Gehry Technologies

    40. Soumaya Museum: LAR + Fineout + Gehry Technologies

    41. Synthesis • Can there be a modern day “master builder”? • Nervi, Candela, Wright, Rogers, Calatrava

    42. Can the synthetic process be one of skillful coordination? • Specialists and manufacturers are taking a bigger role in the process • Maki, Fujisawa, Gymnasium Roof • Ando, Mt Rokko Chapel, Ground Glass • Foster, Hong Kong Shanghai Bank

    43. Synthesis • Can we transfer technologies and solutions from other disciplines? • NASA, composites, ceramics, polymers

    44. Synthesis • Can the synthetic process be a redefinition of the problem? • Traditional process • client, architect, builder • design - bid - build • Owens Corning Process • CM hires specialized disciplines

    45. Conclusion • No definitive answers • CMU curriculum helps to expose you to these issues so that you are better prepared for the future but, • while you have architects & engineers for teachers you do not collaborate with engineering students in the studio • Push yourselves to understand the relationship between engineering & architecture through the vehicle of this studio