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Biotechnology Technique #3: Genetic Engineering. Use the slides that follow to fill in the notes on page 6 of your note packet.

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biotechnology technique 3 genetic engineering
Biotechnology Technique #3: Genetic Engineering
  • Use the slides that follow to fill in the notes on page 6 of your note packet.

This is Buckey and Tucker alongside their mom. Buckey and Tucker have been genetically engineered so that their female offspring will produce a specific protein in their milk.

there are several ways that organisms can develop new traits
There are several ways that organisms can develop new traits:
  • natural selection
  • mutation
  • selective breeding
  • genetic engineering
  • We’re going to look at the last two in this chapter.
selective breeding
Selective Breeding
  • Selective breeding = artificial selection (instead of natural selection)
  • Process of breeding plants or animals for specific traits
  • animals = breeds
  • plants = varieties or cultivars
with selective breeding
With selective breeding…
  • Humans take control; we choose the traits that we want the offspring to have:
    • Identify the feature that we want
    • only allow individuals with that feature to breed with one another
  • We’ve been doing this for 1000s of years!
    • crops
    • domesticated animals
  • Farmers select for cows that produce more milk or for corn plants that produce corn with larger ears
  • Dog breeders
genetic engineering
Genetic Engineering
  • Genetic engineering = altering the DNA of living organisms
  • Requires recombinant DNA
      • Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is DNA from two or more sources incorporated into a single recombinant molecule
      • Organisms with rDNA are genetically modified organisms (GMOs)
  • Has both medical and agricultural applications!

Use the slides that follow to fill in the information on page 7 of your note packet.

This is Dolly, the first successfully cloned organism, and her lamb, Bonny.

medical application 1
Medical Application 1
  • Gene therapy
    • Isolate healthy functional gene
    • Insert healthy gene into a vector like bacteria or a virus
    • Infect a patient with the vector to introduce the healthy gene
    • The healthy gene should produce a normal protein that replaces the function of the patient’s abnormal protein

Works well for disorders resulting from loss of single proteins

      • Gene therapy is a possible treatment for people suffering from cystic fibrosis, hemophilia, possibly AIDS and some cancers
  • Cons:
    • treatment must be repeated
    • immune reactions
medical application 2
Medical Application 2
  • Cloning – whole organisms = cloning by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)
  • 1st done in 1996 – Dolly
      • Died of premature aging and disease
      • 6 yrs old – about ½ the normal life span
  • Goal is to alter genome in a useful way
    • Exp. altered/cloned goats secrete human clotting factors
    • Altered pigs may produce organs for transplant that don’t trigger rejection
medical application 3
Medical Application 3
  • Vaccines
    • Some vaccines contain genetically altered pathogens so they do not cause disease but the body sill builds up antibodies/immune response against the pathogen in the future
  • Exp. DNA vaccines have pathogen DNA but no disease-causing capabilities
  • Possibilities: AIDS, malaria, cancers
medical application 4
Medical Application 4
  • Genetically engineered bacteria can become like little “protein factories” that produce human proteins
  • Scientists can isolate and purify these proteins for human use
    • Exp. insulin for diabetics
  • There are over 30 products made this way for medical use!
a few recombinant dna products
A Few Recombinant DNA products:
  • Insulin – for diabetics
  • Factor VIII and factor IX – clotting factors for hemophiliacs
  • Human growth hormone – for growth defects
  • Erythropoietin – for anemia
  • Interferons – for viral infections and cancer
  • Interleukins
  • Tissue plasminogen activator – dissolves blood clots
  • Angiostatin and endostatin – cancer drugs
  • Hepatitis B surface antigen – for hepatitis B vaccine
agricultural applications
Agricultural applications
  • Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) include crops and livestock.
agricultural applications1
Agricultural applications
  • Genetically modified crops have been genetically altered to:
    • be more tolerant of environmental conditions
    • be resistant to insects/pests and herbicides (weed killers)
      • Have genes that code for proteins that are harmful to insects/pests
    • be resistant to plant diseases
    • increase the amount of food a crop will yield
    • improve nutritional value
  • 93% of soy
  • 94% of cotton
  • 88% of corn
  • GMOs in > 80% of packaged products!
  • Although polls consistently show that American consumers would like to have foods labeled as containing GMOs, there are no mandatory labeling laws.

Livestock have been genetically altered to

    • Increase milk production
    • Increase growth rate
    • Be more resistant to infections
    • Produce leaner meat
  • No GM animals have been approved for food by the FDA yet…

Remember Buckey and Tucker? They’ve been engineered so that their female offspring will produce spider silk protein in their milk.

  • Huh?! Why? That sounds weird.
  • These proteins can be used to spin silk fibers needed to make artificial limbs and bulletproof vests!
why the controversy over genetic technology
Why the controversy over genetic technology?
  • GM crops can get into the wild and become a “SUPERWEED”!
  • Gene therapy shouldn’t involve reproductive cells that could affect future generations.
  • Human embryos should not be cloned.
  • Confidentiality is key. Knowing an individual’s genetic make up may lead to discrimination in the workplace.
  • As much as 70-75% of food in supermarket may be genetically modified. The US does not require GM foods to be labeled.
the end
The End!!

Thank you for completing your notes!!