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The origins of CBT. Came out of the behavioral psychology tradition Leading proponents were Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis 1960s were the starting point and began with the treatment of unipolar depression. Definition of CBT.

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The origins of CBT

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the origins of cbt
The origins of CBT
  • Came out of the behavioral psychology tradition
  • Leading proponents were Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis
  • 1960s were the starting point and began with the treatment of unipolar depression
definition of cbt
Definition of CBT
  • Focused form of psychotherapy based on a model suggesting that psychiatric/psychological disorders involve dysfunctional thinking
  • The way an individual feels and behaves in influenced by the way s/he structures his experiences
definition cont d
Definition cont’d
  • Modifying dysfunctional thinking provides improvements in symptoms and modifying dysfunctional beliefs that underlie dysfunctional thinking leads to more durable improvement
  • Therapy is driven by a cognitive conceptualization and uses a variety of strategies
the general cognitive model
The General Cognitive Model


Automatic Thoughts

And Images

Reaction (Emotional,

Behavioral and physiological)

the cognitive triad
The Cognitive Triad
  • Negative view of the self (e.g., I’m unlovable, ineffective)
  • Negative view of the future (e.g., nothing will work out)
  • Negative view of the world (e.g., world is hostile)
automatic thoughts ats
Automatic Thoughts (ATs)
  • Negative thoughts about yourself, your world, or your future
  • ATs are not given the same consideration as other thoughts but rather they are assumed to be true
examples of ats
Examples of ATs

Catastrophizing - extreme consequences of events

All or nothing - seeing things in black and white - no grey areas

Emotional reasoning - if I feel it, it must be true

identifying assumptions and core beliefs
Identifying Assumptions and Core Beliefs
  • “If…, then…”
  • Downward arrow

- If this thought is true, what’s so bad about that?

- What’s the worst part about that?

- What does it mean to you? About you?

helpless core beliefs
Helpless Core Beliefs
  • I am inadequate, ineffective, incompetent, can’t cope
  • I am powerless, out of control, trapped
  • I am vulnerable, likely to be hurt, weak, needy
  • I am inferior, a failure, a lower, not good enough, defective, don’t measure up.
unlovable core beliefs
Unlovable Core Beliefs
  • I am unlikable, unwanted, will be rejected or abandoned, always be alone
  • I am undesirable, unattractive, ugly, boring, have nothing to offer
  • I am different, defective, not good enough to be loved by other, a nerd
worthless core beliefs
Worthless Core Beliefs
  • I am bad, irresponsible, worthless
  • I am dangerous, toxic, evil, inhuman.
the cognitive model
The Cognitive Model

Core Beliefs


Compensatory/coping strategies


Automatic thoughts/images

Reaction (emotional/behavioral physiological)

the basic goals of cbt
The basic goals of CBT
  • To challenge the thoughts about a particular situation by identifying the cognitive traps
  • help the patient to identify less threatening alternatives
  • to test out these alternatives in the real world
  • to challenge the assumptions that lead to the ATs
the basic tenets of cbt
The basic tenets of CBT
  • Cognitive specificity
  • socratic dialogue
  • collaborative empiricism
the importance of homework
The importance of homework
  • Much of the change occurs between sessions
  • Exercise analogy
  • Predictor of success