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IMO requirements to reduce emission to air from ships by Manager Research and Projects Gdansk April 2008 ‘. INTERTANKO. International Association of Independent Tanker Owners

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IMO requirements to reduce emission to air from shipsbyErik.Ranheim@INTERTANKO.comManager Research and ProjectsGdansk April 2008‘



International Association of Independent Tanker Owners

A non-governmental organization established in Oslo in 1970 to speak authoritatively and proactively on behalf of tanker operators at international, regional, national and local level


260 Members

in 40 countries +

2,900 tankers

236 million dwt

75% of independent tanker fleet

300 Associate Members



Provide leadership to the Tanker Industry in serving the world with safe, environmentally sound and efficient seaborne transportation of oil, gas and chemical products.


A responsible, sustainable and respected Tanker Industry, committed to continuous improvement and constructively influencing its future.


emission from shipping shipping needs intertanko seeks
Emission from shipping Shipping needs - INTERTANKO seeks
  • Positive reduction of harmful emission
  • A feasible, realistic and sustainable solution
  • Long-term, predictable and solid IMO standards
  • No unilateral nor regional regulations
  • Emission Annex VI, SOx, NOx, PM..
  • Green House Gas Emission
reducing harmful emissions from ships
Reducing harmful emissions from ships
  • Onboard abatement technology
    • Scrubbers, filters, separators, catalysts
  • ECAs
    • Emission Control Areas
  • Type and quality of fuel
    • Heavy fuel oil = a blending of refinery residues and distillate (up to 30% dist.)
    • Distillates = gasoil and diesel
  • Improved efficiency and lgistics
world co 2 emission 2000
World CO2 emission 2000

Source; World Resource Institute

shipping and the environment
Shipping and the environment
  • ~60,000 ships (above 400 GT)
  • 7,507,000,000 ts goods / year
  • average distance 4,400 miles
  • >90% of total world trade
  • Consumes 9% of world oil
  • CO2 emission share < 1/2 oil consumption shareSimple infrastructure
  • Economics of scale: One VLCC = 8,000 tank trucks
  • 1 ltr of fuel on a modern Very Large Crude Carrier moves 1 tonne of cargo > 2,800 km


shipping and the environment1
Shipping and the environment
  • Shipping is fuelled by the dirties part of the barrel
  • Burning the heavy fuel oil used by shipping cause emission with:
  • SO2
  • NOx
  • Heavy metals
  • Soot
bunker price development 2000 2008
Bunker price development 2000 - 2008

$ per tonne

Source: Bunkerworld

the imo emission package
The IMO emission package
  • New regulation on SOx and PM
  • Compliance through fuel only
  • Equivalent measures accepted
  • Marine fuel oil quality to be improved
  • No measures on ships that do not receive adequate bunker supply
  • Guidelines to asses compliance if BDN data is challenged by PSC or lab test results
  • NOx Tier I on large 1990s built engines
  • NOx Tier II and Tier III on new engines
regulation 14 sulphur cap
Regulation 14 - Sulphur cap

ECA*- Emission Control Area

2018 IMO considering 0.5%SOx fuel availability

regulation 4 equivalent measures
Regulation 4 – Equivalent measures
  • An Administration may allow any fitting, material, appliance or apparatus to be fitted in a ship or other procedures, alternative fuel oils, or compliance methods used as an alternative to that required by this Annex if such methods are at least as effective in terms of emissions reductions as that required by this Annex
  • This means the Administration (and not the ship) have to acknowledge that:
    • They have equivalent efficiency in terms of SOx, PM and NOx.
    • That they do not harm the environment
    • As they operate within the requirements of the IMO guidelines
why not scrubbers
Why not scrubbers?
  • Still under testing (2 ship limited scale)
  • Large
  • Expensive
  • Difficult (impossible?) to install
  • CO2 emission (buffering effect)
  • leaves hazardous waste
  • waste disposal – no-one wants it
  • Tonnes of seawater need to be processed/added

We are involved in transportation – not waste treatment

revised regulation 18
Revised Regulation 18
  • If a ship is not compliant it should present evidence/record it attempted to buy the compliant fuel in accordance with the voyage plan
  • The ship not required to deviate from the voyage and should not be delayed
  • If evidence is provided, there should be no measures against the ship
fuel oil quality
Fuel oil quality
  • IMO Secretariat to request the ISO to consider a revision of a marine fuel oil specification (ISO 8217) addressing :

-air quality,

-ship safety,

-engine performance,

-crew health

with recommendations for future consideration by the IMO, and if feasible, report back to MEPS 58

nox emissions pre 2000 engines upgrade methodology
NOx emissions – Pre-2000 enginesUpgrade Methodology
  • Measures on engines:
    • installed onboard ships constructed between 1 Jan 1990 and 31 Dec 1999
    • power output > 5,000 kW; and
    • per cylinder displacement at or > 90 litres
  • The NOx emissions at Tier I level
  • If the engine already meets Tier I NOx emission limits, simple certification is sufficient
nox emissions pre 2000 engines part of the certification
NOx emissions – pre-2000 engines Part of the certification,
  • Parties should check that the upgrading:
    • does not reduce the engine rating by more than 1%
    • does not increase the fuel consumption by more than 2%, and
    • it has no other adverse effect on the durability or reliability of the engine
  • Upgrading to an acceptable cost/benefit level calculated according to a cost efficiency formula
pre 2000 engines not complying with tier i nox emission limitations
Pre-2000 engines NOT-complying with Tier I NOx emission limitations:
  • measures against ship ONLY if there is a certified, efficient system commercially available
  • upgrade at the ship’s first renewal survey after a upgrading system is available
  • Documented that a system not available at the first renewal survey, flag gives an extension until the next Annual Survey
nox emissions tier ii new engines
NOx emissions – Tier II (new engines)
  • Tier II standards (emission reductions related to Tier I limits):
    • 15.5% reduction (slow engines)
    • 15.5% and 21.8% (medium speed) engines
    • 21.8% reduction (fast engines)
  • Applies to engines installed on ships constructed on and after 1 January 2011

Engines manufacturers says it is possible

nox emissions tier iii new engines
NOx emissions-Tier III (new engines)
  • Tier III standards – 80% emission reductions from Tier I limits
  • Tier III limits apply to engines:
    • installed on ships constructed on & after 1 Jan 2016
    • power output of > 750 kW

(130 kW – 750 kW may be exempted by the Administration)

  • Tier III limits in ECAs only
  • Outside ECAs - Tier II limits
intertanko welcome imo package
INTERTANKO welcome IMO package
  • Goals set by the INTERTANKO Council fully achieved:
    •  a solid platform of requirements
    • realistic and feasible
    • contribute to achieve a global, long-term and positive reduction of air emissions from ships; and
    • contribute to a long-term and predictable global regulatory regime

Cleaner, Simpler and more Efficient ships

ghg reduction
GHG reduction
  • Ship – striving for efficiency improvement
    • Engine
    • Hull,
      • paint,
      • cleanliness
      • shape
    • Kite/sails…..others
  • Trades- charterers/traders optimising logistic
    • Ballast part
    • Part loading
    • Sourcing
  • Indexing of ships

Cleaner, Simpler and more Efficient ships

outcome on marpol annex vi


Cleaner, Simpler and more Efficient ships