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IMO activities on control of GHG emissions from ships. Eivind S. Vagslid Head, Chemical and Air Pollution Prevention Section Marine Environment Division - IMO. International Maritime Organization (IMO). Safe, secure and efficient shipping on cleaner oceans!.

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Imo activities on control of ghg emissions from ships
IMO activities on control of GHG emissions from ships

Eivind S. Vagslid

Head, Chemical and Air Pollution Prevention Section

Marine Environment Division - IMO


International maritime organization imo
International Maritime Organization (IMO)

Safe, secure and efficient shipping on cleaner oceans!

  • The IMO Convention was adopted in 1948 and IMO first met in 1959

  • A specialized agency of the UN

  • 169 Member States

  • Develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping

  • Safety, environment, legal matters, technical co-operation, security and the efficiency of shipping  


Imo activities on control of ghg emissions from ships

Ship emissions one of the last major ship pollutants to be regulated

Work started at IMO in the late 1980’s

Annex VI adopted in 1997, in force in May 2005,

revised 2005 – 2008

Revised Annex VI in force 1 July 2010

  • Prohibits ODS in line with the Montreal Protocol

  • Regulates exhaust gas: NOx & SOx (PM), and cargo vapours from tankers (VOC)

  • Energy Efficiency or CO2 emissions not covered


Imo activities on control of ghg emissions from ships

  • Resolution A.963(23) regulated

  • IMO Policies and Practices Related to the Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Ships, adopted by Assembly 23 in December 2003

  • IMO’s GHG Work has three distinct routes:

  • A.963(23) requests MEPC to:

  • develop a work plan with timetable – (technical/operational culminated at MEPC 59, the work plan for MBIs culminates at MEPC 62 (Assembly 27))

  • establishment of GHG baseline and develop CO2

  • indexing methodology

Technical - mainly applicable to new ships - EEDI,

Operational - applicable to all ships in operation – SEEMP and EEOI, and

Market-based Measures (MBM) – carbon price for shipping, incentive, may generate funds.


Second imo ghg study 2009
Second IMO GHG Study 2009 regulated

Tank

Tank

Tank

Tank

Bulk

Bulk

Bulk

Bulk

General Cargo

General Cargo

General Cargo

General Cargo

Container

Container

Container

Container

RoRo

RoRo

RoRo

RoRo

/Vehicle

/Vehicle

/Vehicle

/Vehicle

Deep sea ships

Deep sea ships

Ocean going

Ropax

Ropax

Ropax

Ropax

Cruise

Cruise

Cruise

Cruise

Regional ships

Regional ships

Coastwise

Other

Other

Other

0

0

0

50

50

50

100

100

100

150

150

150

200

200

200

250

250

250

CO

CO

CO

emissions (million tons / yr)

emissions (million tons / yr)

emissions (million tons / yr)

2

2

2

2007 shipping CO2 emissions 870 million tons

  • Future CO2 emissions:

    • Significant increase predicted – 200 300% by 2050 in the absence of regulations

    • Demand is the primary driver

    • Technical and operational efficiency measures can provide significant improvements but will not be able to provide real reductions if demand continues


Imo activities on control of ghg emissions from ships

Distribution of the world fleet March 2008 regulated

ships above 400 GT

Article 1(b) of the IMO Convention

Encourage removal of discriminatory actions …. promote the availability of shipping without discrimination …… not be based on measures designed to restrict the freedom of shipping of all flags ….;

Lloyd’s Register Fairplay



Potential reductions of co2 emissions
Potential regulatedreductions of CO2 emissions


Energy efficiency design index eedi
Energy Efficiency Design Index - EEDI regulated

Requires a minimum efficiency level (grams CO2/tonne-mile)

Will stimulate continued technology development

Complex formula to accommodate most ship types and sizes

Enables comparison of ships able to move the same cargo

10% reduction for ships built between 2015 – 2020

20% reduction for ships built between 2020 – 2025

30% reduction for ships built between 2025 – 2030



Ship energy efficiency management plan seemp
Ship Energy Efficiency Management Plan - SEEMP with BAU by 2030

  • Onboard management tool to include:

  • Improved voyage planning (Weather routeing/Just in time)

  • Speed and power optimization

  • Optimized ship handling(ballast/trim/use of rudder and autopilot)

  • Improved fleet management

  • Improved cargo handling

  • Energy management


Energy efficiency operational indicator eeoi

Fuel Consumption in Operation with BAU by 2030

Actual Fuel

Consumption

Index

=

Cargo Onboard x (Distance traveled)

Energy Efficiency Operational Indicator - EEOI

  • An efficiency indicator for all ships (new and existing) obtained from fuel consumption, voyage (miles) and cargo data (tonnes)


Eedi and seemp effects
EEDI and SEEMP Effects with BAU by 2030

Scenario: A1B Low uptake

4000

EEDI 10%

Technical measures

3500

SEEMP 11%

Operational measures

Alternative fuels

3000

2500

2000

Mt CO2

1500

1000

500

0

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

2040

2045

2050


Eedi and seemp effects1
EEDI and SEEMP Effects with BAU by 2030

Scenario: A1B Optimistic

4000

Technical measures

3500

Operational measures

EEDI 39%

Alternative fuels

3000

2500

SEEMP 28%

2000

Mt CO2

1500

1000

MBM

500

0

2010

2015

2020

2025

2030

2035

2040

2045

2050


Imo activities on control of ghg emissions from ships

MEPC 61 – 27 September to 1 October with BAU by 2030

Further progress made on all three elements of IMO’s GHG work

Technical and operational measures

Intersessional meeting on energy efficiency measures (June/July 2010)

Regulatory text on EEDI and SEEMP finalized

Adoption by MEPC 62 (July 2010)?

In force 1 January 2013?

Market-based measures

Report by MBM Expert Group

Intersessional meeting in March/April 2011


The bali plan of action
The Bali Plan of Action with BAU by 2030

  • Emissions from international shipping not covered separately but under “Mitigation” in the Bali Plan of Action.

  • The negotiations under the Bali Action Plan, should culminate at COP 15 (December 2009).

  • The mandate was extended to December 2010 with a view to the adoption of a post-2012 regime.

  • BAP is considering how all types of emissions will be treated in the future, including ship emissions.

  • Will ship emissions still be left to IMO?

  • UNFCCC 2-tracks: AWG-KP and AWG-LCA


Shipping under unfccc
Shipping under UNFCCC with BAU by 2030

Consultations in Copenhagen and throughout

2010 were constructive and fruitful but have not

lead to a single agreed text as there are three

challenging obstacles:

  • Should a reduction target be set for international shipping, and if so, what should the target be and should it be set by UNFCCC or IMO?

  • Should the new UNFCCC treaty state how revenues from a market-based instrument under IMO should be distributed and used (climate change purposes in developing countries)?

  • How should the balance between the basics principles under the two conventions be expressed in the new treaty text (UNFCCC and its fundamental CBDR principle, and on the other hand, the IMO constitutive Convention with its non discriminatory approach)?


Thank you for your attention
Thank you for your attention! with BAU by 2030

For more information please see: www.imo.org

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