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Food provides: * Energy to do work (KCAL) * Materials to build compounds, and regulate life activity. (Nutrients)
NUTRIENTS • These Nutrients Provide Kcals: • Carbohydrate 4 kcals/gram • Sugar • Starch • Some sugar alcohols • Protein 4 kcals/gram • Fat 9 kcal/gram • Alcohol in a non-nutrient, but contains 7 kcals/gram
Nutrients • These nutrients regulate body functions and chemical reactions. They DO NOT provide energy (kcal) • Vitamins: organic compounds • Minerals: inorganic compounds. They are basically earth elements. • Water: The solvent in our bodies in which all nutrients conduct their activity. Our bodies are 60% water, close to the % of water found on earth.
Guidelines for Nutrient Intake • Recommendations for every dietary nutrient exists for people of all ages. • Recommendations for caloric intake are also established according to age groups • The government also has constructed a list of dietary guidelines that apply to healthy individuals wanting to consume a healthy diet.
Setting Nutrient Recommendations • Who does it? The committee of the Food and Nutrition Board in the Institutes of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences. Sometimes the USDA and HHS have a say in general Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The WHO makes dietary recommendations world wide.
Dietary Reference Intakes • DRI. A set of four values for the dietary intake for healthy individuals. The DRI consists of: • EAR. Estimated Average Requirements. Population-wide average nutrient requirements used in nutrition research and policy making. RDA values are set using EAR. • RDA. Recommended Dietary Allowances. Nutrient intake goals for healthy individuals. • AI. Adequate Intake. Nutrient intake goals for individuals set whenever scientific data are insufficient to allow establishment of RDA • UL. Tolerable Upper Intake Levels. Suggested upper limit of intake for potentially toxic nutrients.
Other Dietary Recommendations • Energy Requirements. Energy requirements for individuals are set at the population average. • Food Labels. Use the Daily Value (DV). This is a standard that allows comparison among products for nutrient content. Used on food labels only. NOT part of DRI.