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Essay. Introductions. Two Purposes: Clarifies what the paper is about Grabs the reader’s interest. You Need a Hook!!!. Quotation – One that sums up the essay would be nice. Definition – Use sparingly. Too many amateur writers use this method.

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Two Purposes:

Clarifies what the paper is about

Grabs the reader’s interest


You Need a Hook!!!

Quotation – One that sums up the essay would be nice.

Definition – Use sparingly. Too many amateur writers use this method.

Question - Ask a question in the introduction – answer it in the body.

Problem – Pose a problem in the introduction – answer it in the body.

Statistics – Statistics add credibility to your essay, provided they are real.

Comparison – Take something the reader is unfamiliar with and relate it to something with which

they are familiar.

Metaphor/Simile – An even more effective comparison for making the complex seem simple.

Shocker – Everyone likes surprises.

Summary – A brief summary piques the reader’s interest

Anecdote – A short humorous story relevant to the topic eases the reader into the material

Expert opinion – An expert gives you instant credibility with the reader.


Show, Don’t Tell


The sugar-coated purple cereal is disappearing as you slurp it down with chocolate milk. You jam some bubble gum in your mouth and hop on your bike. After hanging out at your friend’s house, you get hungry and head for the nearest fast-food joint for your hamburger, fries, and Coke. Does this sound familiar? There are too many kids who eat very unhealthful foods and do not know there are tasty foods that are not bad for them. So, do yourself a favor and read ahead for a healthful menu for breakfast, lunch, and dinner.





Primary Purpose:

“Wrap it Up”

Bring Your Paper to an End!

  • giving a thought-provoking quotation
  • describing a powerful image
  • talking about consequences or implications
  • stating what action needs to be done
  • ending on an interesting twist of thought
  • explaining why the topic is important

Show, Don’t Tell


So, the next time you pop that jaw breaker into your mouth, the next time you eat oily potato chips for dinner, remember that there are tasty choices that won’t hurt your body. Melons taste a lot like candy if you haven’t been eating white sugar from those little packets every time you go to a restaurant. It might take a little getting used to, but once you begin to eat a healthful breakfast, lunch, and dinner, you’ll feel and look better.

ending on an image
Ending on an Image

Today, as the photographs which follow prove, the mystique of the cat is still very much alive in the Egyptian environment. For after all, should not the cat be important in the Muslim world, as apparently God inspired man to write its name-qi, t, t in Arabic letters-in such a shape that it looks like a cat?

--Lorraine Chittock, Cairo Cats

ending on an image1
Ending on an Image

When one reads any strongly individual piece of writing, one has the impression of seeing a face somewhere behind the page. It is not necessarily the actual face of the writer. I feel this very strongly with Swift, with Defoe, with Fielding, Stendhal, Thackeray, Flaubert, though in several case I do not know what these people looked like and do not want to know. What one sees is the face that the writer ought to have. Well, in the case of Dickens I see a face that is not quite the face of Dickens's photographs, though it resembles it. It is the face of a man of about forty, with a small beard and a high colour. He is laughing, with a touch of anger in his laughter, but no triumph, no malignity. It is the face of a man who is always fighting against something, but who fights in the open and is not frightened, the face of a man who is generously angry-in other words, of a nineteenth-century liberal, a free intelligence, a type hated with equal hatred by all the smelly little orthodoxies which are now contending for our souls.

--"Charles Dickens," George Orwell

ending on a quotation
Ending on a Quotation

A popular tale, which I picked up in Geneva during the last years of World War I, tells of Miguel Servet's reply to the inquisitors who had condemned him to the stake: "I will burn, but this is a mere event. We shall continue our discussion in eternity."

--Jorge Luis Borges, Nonfictions

moving toward the general
Moving Toward the General

The practice of rhetoric involves a careful attention to the characteristics and preferences of the audience for whom the writer intends the message. Although Syfers' and Limpus' essays might be somewhat out of place for a contemporary audience, in the 1970s they were not. However, as argued throughout this essay, it is Syfers' memorable sarcasm and wit that ultimately win over her audience. Being humorous while also driving home a worthwhile point is a difficult feat to accomplish in writing. Because Syfers accomplishes it so well, she seems to have stepped over the boundaries of time and reached a much larger audience than she may have originally intended.

--imitation of a student essay

talking about implications or consequences
Talking About Implications or Consequences

I am quite convinced that what hinders progress in the Arab world is the absence of a free press. The dirt in our society has been swept under the carpet for too long. But I am certain that this won't be the case for much longer. Arabs are beginning to engage in lively debate over their political and social predicament. And Al-Jazeera offers a ray of hope. Already, other Arab stations are imitating The Opposite Direction, though with limitations. Press freedom leads to political freedom. Someday, in spite of the attempts by today's totalitarian rulers, a free Arab press may help to create real democracy in the Arab world.

--Fasial al-Kasim, "Crossfire: The Arab Version"



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Trent Lorcher