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Essay . Non-Fiction Writing . One of the main focuses this year will be to work on your non-fiction writing (Academic essay) What does non-fiction writing look like? Proposes a claim. Clear thesis Evidence supporting your claim A conclusion . Examples.

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Non fiction writing
Non-Fiction Writing

One of the main focuses this year will be to work on your non-fiction writing (Academic essay)

What does non-fiction writing look like?

Proposes a claim.

Clear thesis

Evidence supporting your claim

A conclusion


The Claim: The students could not learn because it was too hot.

English Class: Unimpeded by clouds, the sun glared upon the school. The students stuck to their chairs like glue while their shirts were soaked in perspiration. The line-up for the water-fountain stretched from hallway to hallway. It was dreadfully clear, it was too hot for the students to learn.

Non fiction writing1
Non-Fiction Writing

Socials Studies:

On Tuesday, October 8th, 2014 the students at Collingwood were in school on a day which saw a high of 40 degrees Celsius. Research indicates that the optimal temperature for learning is 18 degrees Celsius. Therefore, it was too hot for the students to learn.

Charles gets a little help from his friends
Charles gets a little help from his friends

  • First Buckingham advised the king poorly. He ended up being assassinated.

  • Then the king turned to Archbishop Laud and Lord Strafford who only dug the King in deeper

    • Strafford: found ways of squeezing more money out of the British population

    • Laud: a strong supporter of the “papist” rituals and decoration in the Anglican Church

      • Result: Puritans trashing churches in revolt

    • Laud: suggests imposing and enforcing the Anglican prayer book upon the Presbyterian Scots

      • Result: civil disorder and riots in Scotland. Scottish nobles take control of government.

The war before the war
The War before the War:

  • To quell the resistance in Scotland, Charles called parliament to raise money for war– he found little support and sympathy towards the Scots.

  • He dissolved parliament (the Short Parliament, 1640) and marched towards Scotland.

    • He hoped that anti-Scottish sentiment would bring out the nobles on his side.

      • However, many did not come to ride with him. In addition, there were mutinies and many officers were lynched.

  • The army failed to beat the Scots at Newburn in 1640. First victory for the Scots in decades.

Long parliament 13 years of sitting
Long Parliament:13 years of sitting

  • No Money = No Army = no fight against Scotland

    • In fact, some parliamentarians liaised with Scottish Parliamentarians! AND there were rebellions in Ireland that needed squashing! Can’t let the Catholics get away with anything!

  • Charles crumbled and called Parliament (the long parliament)

  • Parliament was still not supportive of the King

    • Demanded that Laud and Strafford be turned over (they were executed)

    • Charles was forced to sign a bill “the Grand Remonstrance” that required him to

      • Call parliament regularly

      • Not impose illegal and invented taxes

      • Pass the control of the army and navy to parliament

      • Uphold the “privilege of Parliament”

        • The bill passed by 11 votes.

  • Parliament was becoming divided between those who supported the King (Royalists) and those who were in favor of Parliament (Parliamentary Party), led by John Pym (creator of the Grand Remonstrance)

Recount nah i ll just bring in the army
RECOUNT!! Nah, I’ll just bring in the army

Because the bill was so narrowly passed, Charles thought that if he arrested the leaders of the bill, parliament would be on his side. Clearly there were still some people in parliament who supported him.

With 500 soldiers, Charles stormed parliament to arrest the leading MPs.

However, his scheme hadn’t been so secretive, and the 5 MP had escaped.

This move was in clear violation of the “Privilege of Parliament” so no arrests were made, only new enemies in Parliament.

You bring your army we ll bring in ours
You bring your army, we’ll bring in ours

In retaliation to Charles’s smooth move, open rebellions sprung up in the streets

Thousands of citizens armed themselves and surrounded Parliament. The leading MPs returned to their seats to the cheers of their peers.

Charles, fled London, went North to Nottingham, where he would have support.

The queen, Henrietta Maria, did her job… she brought the royal jewels with her, to help pay for her husband’s army.

In Nottingham, Charles raised his standard, effectively declaring war on Parliament.

Review in his fight to remain king what actions and reactions happened
Review: In his fight to remain king, what actions and reactions happened.

  • Economically:

    • Taxes, ship money, tunnage and poundage, forced loans, selling titles; for extravagant living and bad wars.

  • Socially:

    • Force Anglican bible on the Scots, continue “papist” church ceremonies to anger Puritans, violation of free speech and writs of habeus corpus, billeting soldiers.

  • Politically

    • Divine right, not calling parliament and ruling without it, not ruling by council, Court of Star Council and misuing Royal Prerogative, petition of right , abusing ‘Parliamentary Privilege’, lying to Parliament, descending the army on parliament.

Homework readings
Homework readings reactions happened.

Civil War Begins

If you supported the king (Charles I) , you were a..

Answer: Royalist or Cavalier

What is a Cavalier?

The armies
The Armies reactions happened.

Royalists were comprised of..

Noble Families, used to formal riding, experience commanders.

Parliament’s troops?

Farmers, townspeople with almost no military experience.

Parliament did control the navy, and the richest part of the country (the south)

Question: Would a longer war best suit the King or the Parliament?

New armies
New Armies reactions happened.


New army for the Parliament, highly disciplined, religious, well-equipped

Oliver Cromwell ?

Commander of the New Model Army 1645

Important battles
Important battles reactions happened.

Edge Hills

October 23, 1642, London : No clear Winner

Adwalton Moor : June 30, 1643

4,000 Parliamentary soldiers defear 10,000 Royalists,

Marston Moor, July 2, 1644 : Parliament wins

Naseby: June 14, 1645. Parliament wins

Women during the civil war
Women during the Civil War reactions happened.

Many were left at home to manage lands and estates.

There were often struggles as both armies plundered their homes and farms

Plunder : to take goods by force

Some travelled with the armies to support the cause.

Many women died on these journeys

Primary Document

Rump parliament
Rump Parliament reactions happened.

Temporary Parliament during the Civil War

Composed of Puritans who wanted Charles gone.

Puritans take control of the Parliament through force (Colonel Pride – his Puritan led army

Charge the king of treason and put him on trial

Treason death of charles i
Treason : Death of Charles I reactions happened.

Treason: An act against one’s one nation.

1647 – Charles had signed an agreement with the Scots that he would support Presbyterianism (main religion in Scotland) in exchange for military aid against the parliament .

The Scots did invade parliament - were defeated by Cromwell

Found guilty – sentenced to death by beheading.

Activity exit sli p
Activity : Exit Sli reactions happened.p

Activity : Pretend you’re a lawyer for Charles I and the parliament.

On one side, in full sentences, explain why Charles should NOT be executed, on the other side explain why he should be executed.

Hand it in, and study for the quiz..