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Chapter 18- Foreign Policy (FP). (1). Outline history of US Foreign Policy (FP) from isolationism thru Cold War to post- Cold War era .

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chapter 18 foreign policy fp
Chapter 18- Foreign Policy (FP)
  • (1). Outline history ofUS Foreign Policy (FP)fromisolationismthru Cold Wartopost-Cold War era.
  • (2). Define the following key FP terms:Monroe Doctrine, globalism, containment Truman Doctrine, NATO, 3rd World, détente, enlargement,and neo-isolationism.
  • (3). Definenational interest; contrast decision making for FP w/that fordomestic policy.
  • (4). Discuss theenumerated & implied powersset by the Constitution for making FP.
  • (5). Examine the inherent advantage of the President in making foreign policy.
  • (6). Outline the role of theWhite House, the Bureaucracy, the Congress, and the Public in shaping American foreign policy.
  • (7). Discuss theUS National Securitystructure and keyDOD organizations& leaders.
  • (8). Discuss Foreign Policy challenges facing the U.S. in the Post-Cold War era.
  • (9). Assess the future direction ofUS National Security PolicyandMilitary Strategy,required militaryForce Levels, Mission Creep, Multi-nationalism, WMD, andBMD.
  • (10). Discuss current foreign policy issues and their political impact on the U.S.

- War on Terrorism; - War with Iraq; - North Korea; - Arab-Israeli conflict - Domestic economic slump; - the uncertain future;

us foreign policy fp a brief history
US Foreign Policy (FP)A Brief History

1798-1941 The Isolationist Era

1942-1945 World War II (start of“Globalism”)

1946-1989 The Cold War

1990-present Post-Cold War

New category after 9/11/2001

Let’s examine these periods in greater detail

brief history of u s foreign policy
Brief History of U.S. Foreign Policy
  • Isolationism*

A foreign policy built on the principle of avoiding formal military and political alliances with other countries.

  • The Isolationist Era
    • 1st 150 yrs of US History
      • Adherenceto guidance of Washington’s Farwell address
      • Stressed avoiding political connections overseas
      • Pursue commercial trade ties only
    • US militarily weak & focused on expansion westward
    • Not interested in global role (2 oceans of separation)
  • What FP Doctrine* asserted US interests for the first time outside America, primarily throughout Western Hemisphere (1823)?
the monroe doctrine
The Monroe Doctrine

A basic principle of U.S. foreign policy that dates back to a warning President James Monroe issued in 1823 that the United States would resist further European efforts to intervene in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere.

monroe doctrine 1823
Monroe Doctrine (1823)
  • Invoked 1895: early FP involvement outside US
    • Aim: Protect US interest in Western Hemisphere
  • US involvement overseas primarily in LATAM
    • US Military Intervention escalated beginning in 1900:
world war i
World War I
  • US deviated from Isolationism briefly during WWI
  • WW1 (W. Wilson)=> make world “safe for democracy”
    • After WW1=> isolationism returns w/vengeance
    • Senate rejects League of Nations & Versailles treaty
    • Sets the stage for next global war => ?
world war ii
World War II
  • WWII=> US stays out of War as Hitler first attacks
    • Why does US change its mind about involvement?
air raid pearl harbor 7 december 1941
“Air Raid Pearl Harbor” 7 December 1941

Impact on American Public Opinion?

Following WWII=> US rethinks previousisolationism

globalism era the cold war
Globalism Era => The Cold War
  • Globalism:
    • US should be prepared to use military force around the globe to protect its political & economic interests
  • Following WWII => who emerges as primary thereat to US political & military interest?
  • Presidential doctrine formulated as a result?
  • Truman Doctrine:
    • US would actively oppose communists’ attempts to overthrow or conquer non-communist nations
  • US Foreign Policy that emerged from the Truman Doctrine?*
A bedrock principle of U.S. foreign policy from mid 1940s to early 1990s that emphasized the need to contain any further Soviet territorial & communist ideological expansion. Containment

What was the economic instrument of Containment?

  • Marshall Plan: US commitment to rebuild Europe
  • $100 Billion+ appropriated for task in today’s $$$
  • Soviets initially invited to participate (reaction?)

Soviet Threat






What was the military instrument of Containment?

cold war heats up
Cold War Heats Up
  • As Soviets become more aggressive
    • US becomes more concerned
  • Conduct major National Security reassessment
    • NSC-68: National Security Strategy for Containment
      • Concludes a major increase in defense spending required
  • Truman administration balks at high price tag
    • SoNSC-68 filed in bottom drawer of someone’s safe
    • Then what major military event occurred in June 1950?
korean war
Korean War

From US perspective, Soviets engaged indirectly through NK & China

us versus ussr the indirect approach
US versus USSR- The Indirect Approach
  • Competition at margins=>the 3rd World
    • US primary Foreign Policygoal:
      • Prevent potential “falling dominoes”
  • Major test of this goal: Vietnam War:
    • US (Ike) supports French in SE Asia
    • Aim: Contain Soviet expansion in SEA
  • US view of most global crises & conflicts?
  • Most viewed as Soviet/communistinspired:
    • USSR => China => North Vietnam => South Vietnam’s guerilla insurgents
  • How does the US (JFK) initially deal with South Vietnam’s insurgency?*
counter insurgency ci
Counter Insurgency (CI)
  • JFK sends Special Forces & SEAL advisors to conduct CI
  • LBJexpands US involvement following 1964 Tonkin Gulf incident
americanization of vietnam war 1965 1968
“Americanization” of Vietnam War(1965-1968)
  • Conventional US Troops take over fighting for SVN
    • Reach high point of 540,000 US troops by 1969

The majority of Americans support US policy & the war until 1968

the tet offensive 1968
The “Tet” Offensive- 1968
  • The “light at the end of the tunnel” becomes a speeding train’s headlight:
    • Americans become disillusioned with continuing the War as it’s bought home to them up front & personal
    • Look for a way out of Vietnam “with honor”
exit strategy
Exit Strategy
  • US involvement reached high point by late 1968
    • America became acutely divided over war
    • Following Tet Offensive most Americans just wanted out
  • Seeking a way out of quagmire
    • Nixon comes to powerwith “secret plan” to get out
      • “Vietnamization” => allow “Peace with Honor”
  • February 1973=> Peace Accords signed
    • War turned over to SVN & US military forces withdraw
    • 1975: Peace w/o Honor & the “Vietnam Syndrome”
  • Nixon sought Soviet help to get US out of Vietnam
    • Aim: Get Soviets & China to push North Vietnam to peace talks
    • Pursues easing of tensions between two superpowers- called?
d tente
  • A policy of Nixon administration followed to develop more cordial relations with the Soviet Union.
    • Aimed in part in enlisting Soviet support to assist US in getting North Vietnam back to peace table & serious negotiations
    • So that US could get out of Vietnam “with honor.”
  • Détente’ lasted until 1979
    • Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in late 1979 (Carter) brought US-Soviet Détente’to an abrupt end.

US-Soviet relations declined even more when Ronald Reagan took office (“Evil Empire” Speech)

reagan the evil empire
Reagan &“The Evil Empire”
  • Reagan pursues hard line with the Soviets
    • A corrupt USSR system living on barrowed economic times
    • Serious reform long past due to save it from collapse
  • 1985: Mikhail Gorbachev=> comes to power & attempts reform => Perestroika & Glasnost
    • Problem: Soviet system too corrupt & broken to salvage
  • Reagan’sSDI=> outspending the Soviets into defeat
    • Unable to keep up with strategic arms race & go broke trying
  • Year of Revolution& fall of Eastern Europe - 1989
    • Fall of Berlin Wall – symbol of Soviet Communism
  • US Military operations inThird Worldcontinued:
    • Grenada, Panama, Iraq #1
    • (Clear lack of Soviet support for its former ally- Iraq)
  • Fall of Soviet Union- 1991 & End of Cold War
after the cold war
After the Cold War
  • New World Order–
    • Strategic reassessment (Bush I) tries to figure out what US should do during the post Cold War era
    • Still trying to decide when Clinton is elected in 1992
  • Policy of Enlargement(Clinton)=>
    • Expand democracy & free markets globally
  • Also use military force as required (& we did):
    • Somalia 1993
    • Haiti 1994
    • Bosnia & NATO peacekeeping- 1995
    • Serbia bombing – 1999
    • Kosovo – NATO bombing & peacekeeping- 2000
foreign policy under george w bush
Foreign Policy Under George W. Bush
  • Neo-isolationism: from 2000 until 9/11/2001
    • Theory: US should take a step back
      • Avoid always acting as world’s policeman
    • Reality: Campaign rhetoric gives way to real world once in office
      • The world is still very dangerous & America is not immune
      • ON 9/11/2001 that reality hit home hard => revised policy
  • The Bush Doctrine:
    • America’s post 9/11/2001 Policy & Strategy-
      • Focus: Counter Terror Policy & National Security Strategy
    • Preemptive strikes & “preventative war”
      • US invasion of Afghanistan & Iraq II
foreign policy fp versus domestic policy dp
Foreign Policy (FP) VersusDomestic Policy (DP)
  • National Interest & its various degrees & levels
    • Vital vs. Important- (who decides?)
  • Text: “Two presidencies”
    • At Home( weak president) vs. Abroad (strong one)- why?
  • Five Sources of Presidential Foreign Policy power:
    • 1. The Constitution & president’s enumeratedvs. implied powers
    • 2. President’s “inherent” advantages in Foreign Policy
    • 3. Role of precedentin presidential dealings in Foreign Policy
    • 4. Supreme Court Rulings regarding presidential FP actions
    • 5. Behavior of Congress when the President takes decisive action
  • Let’s examines these sources of power in greater detail*
1 the constitution and foreign policy
1. The Constitution and Foreign Policy
  • Article I=> enumeratedCongressional powers include:
    • Provide for common defense
    • Regulate commerce
    • Define & punish Piracies & Felonies on high seas
    • Declare War
    • Raise & support Armies & maintain a Navy
    • Make rules & regulations for land & naval forces (UCMJ)
    • Power of the purse => (fund or not fund military deployments)
  • Article II=> enumeratedPresidential powers:
    • Commander in Chief (title or job description?)
    • Power to make treaties (subject to Senate’s ratification)
    • Appoint Ambassadors (Senate also has role- what?)
2 the president s inherent advantages
2. The President’s Inherent Advantages
  • Foreign Policy success depends on (what?):
    • Speed(quickly seize the initiative)
    • Discretion(secrecy)
    • Flexibility(shift priorities as needed & compromise)
  • Presidential initiativesdepend on the venue used:
    • Foreign Policy (FP) vs. Domestic Policy (DP)-
    • Difference between the two WRT presidential freedom of action?
    • FP: UnlessCongress acts to halt president’s actions
      • (Military Force Deployment) – it stands- versus:
    • DP: UntilCongress agrees to act president’s initiative
      • (Social Security reform)- nothing happens
3 precedent
3. Precedent
  • President’s aggressive interpretation of FP powers
    • Any presidential action establishes precedent
      • If left unchallenged or challenge is unsuccessful=>
      • Implied power is successfully established as result
    • Successors use as spring board for further expansion
  • Truman to present=>
    • Implied power asCINC (Korean War- Text: Box 18-1)
    • Title confersimplied power to order troops into combat
    • Now accepted as precedent (though grudgingly)
    • Also depends on the perceived power & popularity (poll numbers) of the president
4 supreme court rulings
4. Supreme Court Rulings
  • US v. Curtiss -Wright Export Corporation (1936)
    • Court Decision: President’s FP powers go beyond Constitution
    • Impact:expanded implied Presidential powers in Foreign Policy
  • US v. Belmont (‘37)=> executive agreement (vs. Treaty)
    • Result:executive agreementstrend up- over 90% (See Box 18-2)
  • Furthermore Court usually refuses to hear challenges on FP
    • Effect: de facto Court support for presidential FP prerogatives
    • Desire to avoid Presidential/Congress political disputes in FP
    • Also Court believes FP rulings simply beyond their competence
5 behavior of congress
5. Behavior of Congress
  • Partisan & institutional divisions in Congress=>
    • Results in their lack of unified action to challenge
  • Belief in strong Presidential leadership in FP
  • Electoral considerations
    • (What if President is right? – avoid voters’ displeasure)
  • Post WWII vs. post Vietnam Congressional behavior
  • End of Vietnam War & Cold War =>
    • More Congressional activism in Foreign Policy
  • Post Iraq II Congressional behavior? (TBD)
next assignment
Next Assignment
  • Thanksgiving Holiday (Wednesday: no class)
    • Travel safely!
  • Chapter 18b: Foreign Policy (Next Monday)
    • Learning Objectives 6-10
  • Preparation for Course Review(Wednesday 11/30)
    • Also Department wide standardized test administered as well
  • RESEARCH PAPER IS also DUE 11/30!!!
  • Complete Instructor Evals – today before you leave!
who makes u s foreign policy
Who Makes U.S. Foreign Policy?



White House Staff

Foreign Policy Bureaucracies


American Public

How much power & influence does each have on FP?*

foreign policy power
Foreign Policy Power

Let’s examine each more closely

the white house nsc
The White House & NSC
  • Role of President & Vice President
    • Varies w/administration
    • Generally=> President has called all the shots
    • Recently VP delegated a great deal of power & influence
      • Certainly true of this Administration
  • National Security Council (NSC)*
    • Plays key role in formulating American Foreign Policy
  • NSC advisor & his or her staff’s role
    • Plays as eitherHonest brokerorpolicy advocate
    • Depends on President’s preference & NSC advisor
      • Nixon & Kissinger vs. Bush II & Rice (now Hadley)
national security council nsc
National Security Council (NSC)
  • Created in 1947
  • Members include:
    • The President & Vice President
    • Secretary of State & Secretary of Defense
    • Director of CIA & Chair of Joint Chiefs of Staff
      • (Advisors to statutory members- subject to change)
  • The staff is headed up by the National Security Advisor
  • Other relevant Cabinet Secretaries invited as required
foreign policy bureaucracy
Foreign Policy Bureaucracy

State Department

Defense Department

CIA & Intel Community

NSC Staff


Let’s examine their specific Foreign Policy roles

the foreign policy bureaucracy
The Foreign Policy Bureaucracy
  • Roles of Department of State (DOS) vs. Defense (DOD)
    • Current Iraq II example: DOD took the lead over State
    • Major debate ensued
      • (Winning the Peace vice just Winning the War)
    • Personality driven debate (who has the most influence?)
  • Uniformed Armed Svs’ role
    • Chairman & Joint Chiefs
      • (CJCS & JCS chiefs)
    • Military judgments in a political world (The Challenge?)
intelligence community
Intelligence community
  • Intelligence community & selected agencies
    • Major current power shifts creating disruptions
    • DNI & CIA- who’s on first? (TBD )
  • Expertise & experience must be taken into account
    • Recent Intel failure illustrates problem when not=>
    • Telling the boss always what he wants to hear?
      • Impact? (Tends to downplay unpleasant or hard news)
  • Also all Agencies compete with each other for power, influence, & $$$ (Budget share)
    • Result: Tends to drive US FP to also include what in their recommendations?
    • Agency’s own interests & agenda
congress foreign policy
Constitution (Article I) assigns Congress explicit powers

Result: Considerabletheoretical influence in foreign policy

Before WWI & II, Congress tended to assert greater role in Foreign Policy

During the 1950s and 1960sCongress typically deferred to the Executive Branch

(Since WWII & start of Cold War)

During 1970s and 1980sCongressional activism in foreign policy grew (Post Vietnam & Watergate)

Post 9/11 Congress tended to defer to President (at first)

Now appears to be re-asserting itself as war becomes unpopular

Congress & Foreign Policy
congress foreign policy 2
Congress & Foreign Policy (2)
  • So extent of power & influence varies over time
    • Cold War vs. post-Watergate & post-Vietnam War vs.
    • Post 9/11 (…and back to the future)
  • 3 ways Congress influences Foreign Policy:
    • 1. Substantive legislation
      • $$$ appropriations shape policy => power
    • 2. Procedural legislation
      • How laws & regulations must be applied wrt Policy
    • 3. Efforts to shape Public Opinion
      • (Democrats vs. GOP on success or failure of Iraq II)
public opinion foreign policy
Public Opinion & Foreign Policy
  • Two options for the Public to shape Foreign Policy:
    • 1. Join interest groups & lobby Congress & President
    • 2. Vote for candidates aligned with their political views
  • Public seldom able to effect day to day polices (Iraq II)
    • Often policy makers decide with little regard to the Public –why?
    • Public lack detailed knowledge & expertise
    • Apathy (most don’t even know or care where crisis spot is)
      • More concerned with domestic & economic issues
  • Public usually rallies around President once conflict starts
    • Initial resistance to deployment => then active support
  • But with time support will wane if casualties grow and/or progress seems to take too long at too high a price
    • Then the Public makes its concerns known & with impact
impact of public opinion on foreign policy
Impact of Public Opinion on Foreign Policy
  • Public Opinion provide decision makers with very little guidance, but…
  • Two indirect effects of Public Opinion:
    • 1. Constrains future policies which can be considered
      • Example: Vietnam legacy => Vietnam syndrome
    • 2. Determines Washington’s FP priorities(with the media)
    • Iraq II example=> looters initially brushed off by SECDEF
      • Media alerted public & public became concerned re. Iraqi Museum
      • As result FBI went to Iraq to track down stolen antiquities
  • Recent Public concern for Intel failure wrt WMD
    • Forced Administration to adjust reason for invasion (democracy)
    • Then forced to defend itself against critics (cherry picking Intel?)
challenges of the post cold war era
Challenges of the Post–Cold War Era
  • Major debate continues:
    • What should the US role be in the post-Cold War era?
  • Disagreements over Goals & Strategies & Change:
    • Terror strike of 9/11/2001 changed everything
    • Debate now centers on strategy to prevent 2nd attack
    • Preventive War & pre-emptive strikes (Bush Doctrine)
      • (Containment strategyno longer viable option)- why?
      • Soviet Union no longer exists & suicide bombers can’t be logically deterred
    • Homeland Security & Defense at what expense?
      • What’s at stake: Cost in $$$ & Freedoms
us defense spending in 1962 2010
US Defense Spending (in $$$: 1962-2010)

Another way to look at Defense Spending?*

dod budget as of gdp
DOD Budget (as % of GDP)

Korean War






Vietnam War

(High point)

Cold War



future challenges to us foreign policy
Disagreements about the goals and strategies of American foreign policy for 21st century

An ever changing foreign policy agenda

Cold War => Post Cold War => Bush Doctrine

Unilateralversus multilateral*FP approach

How are they different?*

Future Challenges to US Foreign Policy

The tendency of the US to act alone in foreign affairs without consulting other countries.


Three or more Nations cooperate together to solve some common foreign policy problem

Unilateralism vs. Multilateralism

Particular approach selectedwill depend on the major

FP problems the US will face during the 21st Century

potential problems in us foreign policy for 21 st century
Potential Problems in US Foreign Policy for 21st Century
  • The United States will face complex problems in:
  • Nuclear proliferation(North Korea & Iran)
  • Military interventions(The Middle East & exiting Iraq)
  • Economic policy(Trade imbalance w/China & MEOil prices)
  • Globalization(Global interdependence & domestic impact)
  • “Inter-mestic” issues (Foreign Policy impact at home)
  • Human rights(American ideals vs. US National interests)
  • Homeland Security(Balancing security with liberties)
  • The unknown threat(Future “9/11s”?)
the last assignment
The Last Assignment:
  • Review & prepare for Final Exam
    • 25 question standardized test will also be administered
  • Questions & answers to Midterm & Test II
    • Review: come prepared to ask your questions
      • (last chance to clarify any uncertainty)
  • Essay Question Prep Review (Handout last week)
  • Turn in your Research Paper on Wednesday 11/30
    • Include Bibliography and endnotes/sources cited
chapter 18 key terms
Chapter 18: KEY TERMS
  • Cold War: A phrase used to describe the high level of tension and distrust that characterized relations between the Soviet Union and the United States from the late 1940s until the early 1990s.
  • Containment: A bedrock principle of U.S. foreign policy from the 1940s to the 1980s that emphasized the need to prevent communist countries, especially the Soviet Union, from expanding the territory they controlled.
  • Detente: A policy the Nixon administration followed to develop more cordial relations with the Soviet Union.
  • Engagement:The policy of encouraging U.S. trade and investment in a country in an effort to encourage it to pursue policies more to America’s liking.
  • Enlargement: The policy President Bill Clinton proposed as a substitute for containment. It calls on the United States to promote the emergence of market democracies; that is, countries that combine a free market economic system with a democratic political system.
  • Executive agreements: International agreements that, unlike treaties, do not require the approval of two-thirds of the Senate to become binding on the United States.
  • Foreign Service Officers: Career professional diplomats who work for the Department of State.
  • Free trade: An economic policy that holds that lowering trade barriers will benefit the economies of all the countries involved.
  • Globalism: The idea that the United States should be prepared to use military force around the globe to defend its political and economic interests.
  • Globalization: The process by which growing economic relations and technological change make countries increasingly interdependent.
chapter 18 key terms 2
Chapter 18: KEY TERMS(2)
  • Intermestic issues: Issues such as trade, the environment, and drug trafficking that affect both domestic and foreign interests.
  • Isolationism: A foreign policy built on the principle of avoiding formal military and political alliances with other countries.
  • Marshall Plan: A multibillion-dollar U.S. aid program in the late 1940s and early 1950s that helped Western European countries rebuild their economies in the wake of World War.
  • Monroe Doctrine: A basic principle of U.S. foreign policy that dates back to a warning President James Monroe issued in 1823 that the United States would resist further European efforts to intervene in the affairs of the Western Hemisphere.
  • Multilateralism: An approach in which three or more countries cooperate for the purpose of solving some common problem.
  • National interest: The idea that the United States has certain interests in international relations that most Americans agree on.
  • National Missile Defense (NMD): A weapons system that, if it can be made to work, would potentially protect the United States and possibly its allies against attack by long-range ballistic missiles.
  • Neo-conservativism:Recent resurgence of Conservative ideology, especially toward Foreign Policy.
  • Neo-isolationism: The idea that the United States should reduce its role in world affairs and return to a foreign policy similar to the one it pursued before World War II.
  • North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): A military alliance founded in 1949 for the purpose of defending Western Europe from attack. Members of NATO include the United States, Canada, and fourteen European countries.
chapter 18 key terms 3
Chapter 18: KEY TERMS(3)
  • Sovereignty: The power of self-rule.
  • Third World: A term loosely defined to mean the developing countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America.
  • Truman Doctrine: A policy, announced by President Truman in 1947, that the United States would oppose communist attempts to overthrow or conquer non-communist countries.
  • Two presidencies: The argument that presidents have much greater influence over the content of foreign policy than the content of domestic policy.
  • Unilateralism: The tendency of the United States to act alone in foreign affairs without consulting other countries.
  • World Trade Organization (WTO): The international trade agency that began operation in 1995 as the successor to the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade.