Manifest Destiny. The Oregon Country. In 1824, Russia surrenders claim to its land south of Alaska . Four Nations claimed the Oregon Country. Russia. Great Britain. Secretary of State John Q Adams negotiated the Adams- Onis Treaty with Spain in 1819. USA. Spain.
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Four Nations claimed the Oregon Country
Secretary of State John Q Adams negotiated the Adams-OnisTreaty with Spain in 1819
U.S. negotiates joint occupation of the area with Britain!
(Convention of 1818)
Mountain men were people who spent most of their time on the Rocky Mountains
Emigrants were pioneers that left the already established United States to go to Oregon!
The path started at Independence Missouri,
Went across the great plains,
Along the Platte River,
Through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains and into the Oregon Territory.
Can you see how the Rocky Mountains influenced the path that became the Oregon Trail?
Drove Wagons, attended to the animals, and hunted.
Cared for children, cooked, and watched fires.
John O’Sullivan used the term manifest destiny in the New York newspaper saying:
What O’Sullivan meant by that is that the United States was clearly destined to expand it’s way of life all the way to the Pacific coast.
James K. Polk
Senator Henry Clay in a Daguerreotype taken in 1849 by Photographer Matthew Brady
In 1819, very few people were living in Spanish Texas. The people who did live there were called Tejanos (Mexicans that claimed Texas for settlement).
In 1821, Mexico declared its independence from Spain, taking Texas with it.
the Colorado River.
This map shows land claims from 1833. Notice that the Austin Colony is near Galveston Bay .
Texans were angered with Mexico’s government because he Mexican government stopped immigration with the U.S.
In October of 1835, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (Mexico) sent troops in to Gonzales, in Texas, to punish the rebels.
Conflict begins at the town of Gonzales! (Mexicans tried to seize Texan cannons)
"Come and take it" was a slogan used in the Texas Revolution in 1835.
Remember… this is not what Texas looked like in 1835!
At the minor skirmish known as the Battle of Gonzales, a small group of Texans successfully resisted the Mexican forces who had orders to seize their cannon. As a symbol of defiance, the Texans had fashioned a flag containing the phrase along with a black star and an image of the cannon which they had received six years earlier from the hands of a Mexican official.
The Texans scored a important early victory at San Antonio.
Mad about the loss Santa Anna marched his troops north where they found a small Texan force barricaded inside the Alamo
Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna
Davy Crockett and the tough Texan volunteers held Santa Anna off For 12 days, until final the Mexicans stormed the fortress and kill all the defenders leaving only a few women and children to tell the story.
But... Was the Alamo Really a Victory?
Although the Texans lost the battle at the Alamo, it gave Texas:
The Mexican constitution of 1824 gave the people of Texas rights similar to those enjoyed at the time by the citizens of the United States, but every new Mexican government attempted to increase control over Texas. To call attention to this, Texans removed the coat of arms from the center of a Mexican flag, and replaced it with the date of the constitution. It was this banner that flew from the walls of the Alamo.
After the loss at the Alamo, Sam Houston lead an army of about 800 to fight a battle at San Jacinto (near present day Houston).
Sam Houston at San Jacinto
Houston’s army had great success, killing 600 and capturing 700 more Mexican soldiers (including Santa Anna).
Santa Anna than signed a treaty that recognized the independence of Texas
The painting "Surrender of Santa Anna" by William Huddle shows the Mexican strong-man surrendering to a wounded Sam Houston
The original (or "Burnet") flag of Texas (1836–1839)
Once Independent Texas wanted to become part of the United States, but Andrew Jackson refused to let them.
Jackson didn’t want to stir up the issue of adding a slave state or risk war with Mexico themselves!
Texas became a state during James K. Polk’s presidency (election promise). On December 29th 1845, he admitted Texas into the United States.
December 29th 1845, he admitted Texas into the United States. This was their state flag they used!
Went to trade
Took the Santa Fe Trail
In the early 1800’s New Mexico was the vast territory between Texas and California
Others followed in his footsteps.
After Mexico Refuses Polk’s offer, General Zachary Taylor marches his soldiers across the disputed border.
Between the Nueces and Rio Grande R., troops build a fort that later gets attacked by Mexican soldiers
And the War Begins...
California became a republic after a small group of farmers seized the town of Sonoma and started the republic of California ! (1846)
The farmers new country was called the Bear Flag Republic because their flag showed a bear on it!
As the fighting in California was winding down, the advancement on the southern portions of Mexico heated up!
Troops ready to leave Texas to fight in the southern portions of Mexico.
Was given the task of capturing Mexico City.
Scott devised a brilliant campaign that would bring the war to a speedy conclusion.
After the U.S. had taken Mexico City, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in February 1848.
The Treaty Said…
Mexico gave up it’s claims to Texas.
Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande border between Texas and Mexico
The Mexican Cession said that Mexico ceded its provinces of California and New Mexico
Can you describe what areas we gained as a result of the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo?
You know the
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo…
THE 10 MILLION DOLLAR PURCHASE WILL HOPEFULLY HOUSE A INTERCONTINENTAL RAILROAD IN THE FUTURE!
California population increased tremendously in 1849.
The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill, in Coloma, California.
News of the discovery soon spread, resulting in some 300,000 men, women, and children coming to California from the rest of the United States and abroad.
Although the total number of migrants during the gold rush years is uncertain, the non-Indian population in California increased from 14,000 in 1848 to 223,856 by 1852.
They came by sea and through the Sierra Nevada mountain range, building new communities called boomtowns almost overnight.
San Francisco (1851) grew fast and stayed strong even after the gold rush ended .
Port cities, such as San Francisco grew from tiny villages to large cities very rapidly!
“Courage is being scared to death but saddling up anyway” - John Wayne
Many people who had come looking for gold stayed in the area to farm or run a business.
Some of the towns didn’t survive and turned into Ghost towns like Sierra Nevada, California.
The Mormons made desert (Salt Lake City) flourish with hard work and determination.
Utah would not become a state until 1896 after war almost broke out between the Mormons and United States Army.
Emanuel Leutze painting: Westward the Course of Empire takes its Way, 1860