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Manifest Destiny. The Oregon Country. In 1824, Russia surrenders claim to its land south of Alaska . Four Nations claimed the Oregon Country. Russia. Great Britain. Secretary of State John Q Adams negotiated the Adams- Onis Treaty with Spain in 1819. USA. Spain.

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slide3

In 1824, Russia surrenders claim to its land south of Alaska.

Four Nations claimed the Oregon Country

Russia

Great Britain

Secretary of State John Q Adams negotiated the Adams-OnisTreaty with Spain in 1819

USA

Spain

slide4

Four Nations claimed the Oregon Country

U.S. negotiates joint occupation of the area with Britain!

(Convention of 1818)

Great Britain

USA

slide9

The Oregon Trail was the easiest passage west

The path started at Independence Missouri,

Went across the great plains,

Along the Platte River,

Through the South Pass of the Rocky Mountains and into the Oregon Territory.

slide11

On the Trail

Men

Women

Drove Wagons, attended to the animals, and hunted.

Cared for children, cooked, and watched fires.

slide12

John O’Sullivan used the term manifest destiny in the New York newspaper saying:

  • “it is manifest destiny to overspread and to possess the whole of the continent which Providence has given us.”
slide13

Manifest Destiny

What O’Sullivan meant by that is that the United States was clearly destined to expand it’s way of life all the way to the Pacific coast.

slide15

1844 Presidential Election

James K. Polk

Henry Clay

  • Democratic candidate.
  • Whig candidate.
  • The slogan referred to the line of latitude that the democrats believed should be the nations border
  • Did not take a strong position on the border.
  • Used the slogan 54’40’ or fight.

Results…

Senator Henry Clay in a Daguerreotype taken in 1849 by Photographer Matthew Brady

slide19

How did Spanish land in Texas become Mexican Land?

In 1819, very few people were living in Spanish Texas. The people who did live there were called Tejanos (Mexicans that claimed Texas for settlement).

In 1821, Mexico declared its independence from Spain, taking Texas with it.

Sound Familiar?

slide23

His group later becomes known as the Old 300

This map shows land claims from 1833. Notice that the Austin Colony is near Galveston Bay .

slide24

Texans were angered with Mexico’s government because he Mexican government stopped immigration with the U.S.

slide25

In October of 1835, General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna (Mexico) sent troops in to Gonzales, in Texas, to punish the rebels.

Conflict begins at the town of Gonzales! (Mexicans tried to seize Texan cannons)

"Come and take it" was a slogan used in the Texas Revolution in 1835.

Remember… this is not what Texas looked like in 1835!

slide26

At the minor skirmish known as the Battle of Gonzales, a small group of Texans successfully resisted the Mexican forces who had orders to seize their cannon. As a symbol of defiance, the Texans had fashioned a flag containing the phrase along with a black star and an image of the cannon which they had received six years earlier from the hands of a Mexican official.

slide27

EARLY WAR...

The Texans scored a important early victory at San Antonio.

slide28

Mad about the loss Santa Anna marched his troops north where they found a small Texan force barricaded inside the Alamo

Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

slide31

Davy Crockett and the tough Texan volunteers held Santa Anna off For 12 days, until final the Mexicans stormed the fortress and kill all the defenders leaving only a few women and children to tell the story.

slide32

"Remember the Alamo!

Remember Goliad!"

But... Was the Alamo Really a Victory?

  • Much needed time to regroup and prepare

Although the Texans lost the battle at the Alamo, it gave Texas:

  • A rallying cry for the rest of the war.

The Mexican constitution of 1824 gave the people of Texas rights similar to those enjoyed at the time by the citizens of the United States, but every new Mexican government attempted to increase control over Texas. To call attention to this, Texans removed the coat of arms from the center of a Mexican flag, and replaced it with the date of the constitution. It was this banner that flew from the walls of the Alamo.

slide34

End of the War…

After the loss at the Alamo, Sam Houston lead an army of about 800 to fight a battle at San Jacinto (near present day Houston).

Sam Houston at San Jacinto

slide35

Houston’s army had great success, killing 600 and capturing 700 more Mexican soldiers (including Santa Anna).

slide36

Santa Anna than signed a treaty that recognized the independence of Texas

The painting "Surrender of Santa Anna" by William Huddle shows the Mexican strong-man surrendering to a wounded Sam Houston

slide37

Annexation =

take over

The original (or "Burnet") flag of Texas (1836–1839)

slide38

Once Independent Texas wanted to become part of the United States, but Andrew Jackson refused to let them.

Jackson didn’t want to stir up the issue of adding a slave state or risk war with Mexico themselves!

slide40

Texas became a state during James K. Polk’s presidency (election promise). On December 29th 1845, he admitted Texas into the United States.

slide41

December 29th 1845, he admitted Texas into the United States. This was their state flag they used!

slide42

New Mexico Territory

William Becknell

Went to trade

Took the Santa Fe Trail

In the early 1800’s New Mexico was the vast territory between Texas and California

Others followed in his footsteps.

slide44

California

  • In 1821, California became a state in the Mexican nation.
  • The first Americans were there to trade and go whaling
  • Americans wanted to add California as a state because of its mild climate, scenic beauty, and abundant resources.
  • President Polk offered to buy California and New Mexico twice, but Mexico refused.
slide45

After Mexico Refuses Polk’s offer, General Zachary Taylor marches his soldiers across the disputed border.

The

Mexican-American War

slide46

Between the Nueces and Rio Grande R., troops build a fort that later gets attacked by Mexican soldiers

And the War Begins...

slide48

California became a republic after a small group of farmers seized the town of Sonoma and started the republic of California ! (1846)

slide49

The farmers new country was called the Bear Flag Republic because their flag showed a bear on it!

Duh!

slide50

As the fighting in California was winding down, the advancement on the southern portions of Mexico heated up!

slide52

Winfield Scott

Was given the task of capturing Mexico City.

Scott devised a brilliant campaign that would bring the war to a speedy conclusion.

slide55

After the U.S. had taken Mexico City, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in February 1848.

The Treaty Said…

Mexico gave up it’s claims to Texas.

Mexico agreed to the Rio Grande border between Texas and Mexico

slide58

WE ALSO MADE A 10 MILLION DOLLAR PURCHASE!!

You know the

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo…

Add the

Gadsden Purchase!

slide59

THE 10 MILLION DOLLAR PURCHASE WILL HOPEFULLY HOUSE A INTERCONTINENTAL RAILROAD IN THE FUTURE!

slide62

The Gold Rush

California population increased tremendously in 1849.

Because of…

slide63

The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began on January 24, 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill, in Coloma, California.

News of the discovery soon spread, resulting in some 300,000 men, women, and children coming to California from the rest of the United States and abroad.

Although the total number of migrants during the gold rush years is uncertain, the non-Indian population in California increased from 14,000 in 1848 to 223,856 by 1852.

slide65

They came by sea and through the Sierra Nevada mountain range, building new communities called boomtowns almost overnight.

San Francisco (1851) grew fast and stayed strong even after the gold rush ended .

slide67

The vigilantes where people that took the law into their own hands!

“Courage is being scared to death but saddling up anyway” - John Wayne

slide68

Many people who had come looking for gold stayed in the area to farm or run a business.

Levi Strauss

Some of the towns didn’t survive and turned into Ghost towns like Sierra Nevada, California.

slide74

Utah would not become a state until 1896 after war almost broke out between the Mormons and United States Army.

slide75

How does this painting show Manifest Destiny in a positive light?

Emanuel Leutze painting: Westward the Course of Empire takes its Way, 1860