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Chapter 9 Section 5
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  1. Chapter 9Section 5 The War Ends

  2. Grant Versus Lee During the final year of the war, Grant’s forces battled Lee’s forces for control of VA

  3. From Wilderness to Cold Harbor Grant determined to march southward, attacking Lee’s forces, until the South surrendered First battle of campaign- Erupted in the Wilderness. Lasted 2 days Despite suffering heavy casualties, Grant attacked again at Spotsylvania Courthouse

  4. From Wilderness to Cold Harbor Warfare now continued without pause Unable to break Lee’s lines at Spotsylvania, Grant headed toward Cold Harbor- strategic crossroads northeast of Richmond Grant launched an all-out assault at Cold Harbor Union- 7,000 casualties Confederate- 1,500 casualties

  5. The Siege of Petersburg Stopped by Lee at Cold harbor, Grant decided to use a plan similar to the one at Vicksburg General Sheridan ordered to stage a cavalry raid north and west of Richmond as a distraction Petersburg was well defended Full-scale frontal assault was suicidal Grant put city under siege

  6. Farragut Attacks Mobile Farragut took 18 ships past 3 Confederate forts Led ships through a torpedo (mine) field Destroyed Confederate fleet defending Mobile Bay Sealed off bay Blockade runners moving goods in and out of the deep south east of Mississippi could no longer use any port on the Gulf of Mexico

  7. Sherman’s March to the Sea Sherman sent troops south around Atlanta to destroy roads and railways leading into city Troops destroyed the rail lines by heating the rails and twisting them- Nicknamed “Sherman Neckties” Confederate General Hood orders troops to evacuate Atlanta to avoid being trapped

  8. Sherman’s March to the Sea Sherman ordered all civilians to leave Atlanta Ordered troops to destroy everything of military value- mills, warehouses, factories, railroads, and machine shops Fires set to structures quickly spread, burning down more than 1/3 of the city

  9. Sherman’s March to the Sea Nov. 15, 1864- Sherman began his March to the Sea Troops cut path of destruction 60 miles wide Ransacked houses, burned crops, and killed cattle Dec. 21, 1864- reached coast and seized Savannah

  10. Sherman’s March to the Sea Sherman orders troops north into South Carolina The state that started the war to many Union soldiers Troops pillaged everything in front of them 12 town set on fire- Columbia the capital

  11. The Election of 1864 Lincoln knew his success in the election depended on the success of Grant & Sherman Lincoln feared that he would be beaten in the election General George McClellan was his opponent in the election McClellan promised to stop the hostilities & open negotiations with the South to restore the Union peaceably

  12. The Election of 1864 Capture of Atlanta revitalized Northern support for the war & Lincoln Lincoln won the election Lincoln interpreted the election as a mandate to end slavery permanently by amending the Constitution Jan. 31, 1865- 13th Amendment- banning slavery in U.S. narrowly passed the HOR and was sent to states for ratification

  13. Surrender Sheridan forces cut railroad into Petersburg at the Battle of Five Forks Lee’s forces withdrew from city to escape Grant’s forces Sheridan’s cavalry blocked road at Appomattox Courthouse Lee’s troops failed to break through Union forces

  14. Surrender Lee arranges surrender to Grant Surrenders to Grant on April 9, 1865 at Appomattox Courthouse Grant allowed generous terms to the South U.S. would not prosecute Confederate Soldiers for treason Allowed Confederate soldiers to take their horses home to put a crop in the field for the next winter

  15. Lincoln’s Assassination April 14, 1865 Lincoln was assassinated at Ford’s Theatre by John Wilkes Booth

  16. Aftermath of the Civil War North’s victory strengthened the power of the federal government over the states Ended slavery South was socially & economic devastated