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Strategies. Metacognitive Strategies. Match thinking/problem solving Clarify purpose for learning Monitor comprehension through self-questioning Corrective action if understanding fails. Metacognitive Strategies. These strategies must be taught explicitly!. Strategies.

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Strategies


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. Strategies

    2. Metacognitive Strategies • Match thinking/problem solving • Clarify purpose for learning • Monitor comprehension through self-questioning • Corrective action if understanding fails

    3. Metacognitive Strategies • These strategies must be taught explicitly!

    4. Strategies

    5. Cognitive Strategies • Strategies to help a student organize the information they are expected to learn. • Examples • Preview a story • Take notes • Complete a graphic organizer

    6. Strategies

    7. Social/Affective Strategies • Learning is enhanced when people interact!

    8. Teaching/Learning Continuum

    9. The Ultimate Goal • Students learn how to become independent learners

    10. Strategies

    11. National ESL Standards (TESOL) • Goals 1, 2, and 3 all list the importance of using appropriate learning strategies.

    12. The student will be able to: • Focus on most important information • Build on prior knowledge • Expand knowledge base • Fix poor comprehension • Evaluate one’s own success • Seek help from others • Imitate behaviors of native English speakers to complete a task • Use native language resources when necessary

    13. Specific Learning Strategies • Mnemonics • SQP2RS • PENS • GIST • Rehearsal Strategies • Graphic Organizers • Comprehension Strategies

    14. CALLA • Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach • Explicitly teach students learning strategies and have students apply these strategies to instructional tasks.

    15. Strategies

    16. Scaffolding Techniques • Teachers provide substantial support in early stage of new concept • Verbal • Procedural • Instructional

    17. Verbal Scaffolding • Paraphrasing • “Think-aloud” • Reinforce contextual definitions

    18. Increasing Independence Procedural Scaffolding Teach Model Practice Apply

    19. Increasing Independence Procedural Scaffolding Whole Class Small Group Partners Independent

    20. Instructional Scaffolding • Use scaffolding to help students understand what they are learning • Example: Use a graphic organizer to highlight what material is covered in a particular chapter or lesson

    21. Strategies

    22. Questioning • Bloom’s Taxonomy • Knowledge, Comprehension, Application, Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation • Condensed Bloom • Literal, Interpretive, Applied

    23. Questioning • You can “reduce the linguistic demands of responses” and still ask higher order thinking questions! • Are seeds carried by the wind? Vs • Which of these two seeds would be more likely to be carried by the wind the round one, the smooth one, or the one with fuzzy hairs?

    24. Questioning • You need to teach students to identify what level question they are being asked • Students can then learn to ask their own higher level questions. • This ability will help students • search for topics on the internet. • be more successful as they read textbooks. • be critical readers.

    25. Strategies

    26. Teaching Scenarios • The Rainforest • Mrs. Fletcher’s Lesson • Distribute article • Students will predict from the title and picture what the article is about • Teacher will read the article to class • Stop reading on bottom on page 12 and ask students to predict what will happen to the animals in this forest? • Any questions? • Write a letter to the newspaper explaining why we need to save the rainforest.

    27. SIOP? • Use a scale of 4 to 0 (4 is best) • Teacher provides ample opportunities for students to use strategies • Teacher has consistent use of scaffolding techniques throughout the lesson • Teacher uses variety of question types, including higher-order thinking skills

    28. SIOP? • Use a scale of 4 to 0 (4 is best) • Teacher provides ample opportunities for students to use strategies 2 • Teacher has consistent use of scaffolding techniques throughout the lesson 1 • Teacher uses variety of question types, including higher-order thinking skills 0

    29. Teaching Scenarios • The Rainforest • Miss Lee’s Lesson • Introduce article with brief lectures on rainforest • Show photograph of rainforest • In small groups one student reads article to others • Students complete worksheet independently • Students encouraged to use Internet to get additional information. Key word: rainforest • Students share worksheet answer with group, discuss, correct, record group answer on “group answer sheet.”

    30. SIOP? • Use a scale of 4 to 0 (4 is best) • Teacher provides ample opportunities for students to use strategies • Teacher has consistent use of scaffolding techniques throughout the lesson • Teacher uses variety of question types, including higher-order thinking skills

    31. SIOP? • Use a scale of 4 to 0 (4 is best) • Teacher provides ample opportunities for students to use strategies 2 • Teacher has consistent use of scaffolding techniques throughout the lesson 3 • Teacher uses variety of question types, including higher-order thinking skills 1

    32. Teaching Scenarios • The Rainforest • Mr. Montoya’s Lesson • Distribute article • Use SQP2RS to preview article (2 minutes) with partner or individually, then write 3 questions that might be answered in the article • Teacher reads first section to class, then reviews predicted questions, checks on ones answered • New questions/predictions added • Student pairs read article • Student pairs list 3 key vocabulary words • Whole class discusses vocabulary, votes on top 10, these are posted for later use • Student pairs highlight/label where questions and predictions are answered • Each student asked to write a brief summary • Each student asked to choose1 question from a list of 4 to discuss at home and to return prepared to debate the next day

    33. SIOP? • Use a scale of 4 to 0 (4 is best) • Teacher provides ample opportunities for students to use strategies • Teacher has consistent use of scaffolding techniques throughout the lesson • Teacher uses variety of question types, including higher-order thinking skills

    34. SIOP? • Use a scale of 4 to 0 (4 is best) • Teacher provides ample opportunities for students to use strategies 4 • Teacher has consistent use of scaffolding techniques throughout the lesson 4 • Teacher uses variety of question types, including higher-order thinking skills 4

    35. Summary • We must be deliberate in teaching students skills they will need to guide their own learning. • These skills will help students learn to self-monitor, self-regulate, and problems solve.

    36. Discussion Questions • Describe a learning situation you participated in in which the teacher modeled how to do something through demonstration. What worked and what didn’t?

    37. Discussion Questions • Strategies are an important part of a teacher’s repertoire. What are effective ways to explicitly teach students the use of strategies to enhance their learning? Can you demonstrate how to teach effectively a mnemonic strategy to English learners?

    38. Discussion Questions • The concept of scaffolding may be confusing. How does a building analogy apply to teaching new information to English learners?

    39. Discussion Questions • Who was the first President of the United States? • Given the topic of the presidency, what are several additional questions you could ask that promote higher-order thinking? Why is it important to use a variety of questioning strategies with English learners?

    40. The End