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Strategies Presented by: Amanda Burleson Anne Donadio Cynthia Townsend
The Writing Process • Usually includes five steps: • Prewriting (generating ideas, mental rehearsal for writing) • Drafting (writing in process) • Revision (additions and improvements to ideas organization, focus, voice, word choice, and sentence fluency) • Editing (cosmetics and error detection) • Publication (public sharing of product)
Writers move back and forth among the first three stages as they begin to recognize a need to rework their written thoughts. • Every step of the writing process does not have to be used for every piece of writing. “Not every piece of writing needs to be taken to the final stage of publication. Teachers might focus on prewriting and prewriting and first draft, reserving the other stages for work that will be more formally evaluated” (Danielson). • When students become more familiar with the writing process then they are more likely to use the five steps of the writing process, and hopefully will become better at including the steps when they write.
“Successful writers may go through many if not all, of these steps in an order that makes sense for their work. Sometimes students are just ready to write. Brainstorming and story-mapping an idea that is ready to be written may just suck the life out of it before the students start writing. Often, given the freedom an flexibility to do so, students write something and then in revision, back up and create a whole new draft based on what they discovered was important from their first attempt. Writing is not a linear process. Never has been; never will be.” • p.22 6+1 Traits of Writing • What vocabulary do we want to use for each step of the writing process at Cove Creek?
Writer’s Workshop (K-2) Materials: Teacher-made journals, spiral notebooks, pencils, big erasers, markers, colored pencils, dictionaries, word wall Oral Language is very important in helping students plan their ideas. *Teacher models what is expected. *Teacher teaches mini-lesson. *Expectations build throughout the year when new concepts are taught. The students are expected to apply these learned strategies. *Students are expected to write for the entire Writer’s Workshop time.
*Students take risks in writing and work to get writing down on paper. *Teacher/Student Conference: Teachers give feedback on written work. Teacher asks questions to help the student think about their writing. From these questions, the students make decisions about changing their work. Students revise their work, finding ways to make their work better (polish). *Editing checklist should be posted in the classroom. These lists change as the year progresses and different skills are taught. *A piece is finished when the student has completed the checklist. *Students can share their work and celebrate their success!
(3-5) Writer’s Workshop Outline • Mini-Lesson (5-10 min.) A mini lesson can be a whole class or small group lesson. It can be as simple as guided writing from a story, or how editing marks are used. • Status of the Class (2-3 min.) Status of the Class provides the student and the teacher with information about how the student’s work is progressing. • Writing (20-40 min.) and Conferencing Students may write in various modes. The teacher conferences with students to help them with the revision and editing. Some teachers use peer conferencing during this time, however for this piece to be successful the teacher must model expectations. If peer editing is included TAG is a great strategy to use. Tag stands for –Tell one thing you liked about the story, Ask one question, and Give a suggestion. • Sharing (10 min.) The Author’s Chair may still be used to share a “published book.” Published works can also be shared in pairs, or by allowing students read published works to themselves.
Organization-One teacher said, “I have a poster with library pockets for each student. In each pocket I have 3 cards, red=Work in progress, Yellow=Illustrating, Green=Publishing.” Some teachers record the status of the class, but this is a great visual for status of the class that students can be responsible for. Decide on your requirements for publication: Front Cover: typically a piece of colored construction paper with title, author’s name, and illustration (This information can be completed after the book is written and revised) Title Page: with title, author’s name, and illustration (may be optional if student is writing a longer text) and date of completion. Dedication Page Story Pages: in order with page numbers, with optional illustrations. Back Cover: usually a piece of colored construction paper (can include an Author’s page and self portrait or student photo on the inside).
Topic Ideas For Mini Lessons -topic selection -add details -what to do when your stuck -peer editing -narrowing your focus -peer revising -leads/hooks -endings/closings -voice -story sequence -audience -beautiful -conventions language -quality illustrations during publishing -expanding -sentence fluency vocabulary to -grammar sharpen descriptions -visual details -describing with -dialogue accuracy -condense story -expand story/par -transition words story -linking sounds and actions -alliteration -metaphors -synonyms -similes -personification
(6-8) • Daily • Mini Lesson- direct instruction; can take whole period-on revision strategies/grammar/conventions (editing) • Status of Class- all students are at different places/different pieces • Choice of topic and/or genre • Conferencing throughout the process-record notes in folders • Developing editing checklist and post (helps with consistency in expectations for writing in all areas) • Content is important. Students should be aware of their organization, word choice, voice, sentence fluency ( as well as conventions)
Writing Across the Curriculum “Writing across the curriculum isn’t just a method of getting students to write who are afraid of writing. It is also a method of getting students to learn what they were afraid of learning.” William Zinsser Writing to Learn
Provide many opportunities for students to write daily: • Guided writing in all areas • Math journals • Science journals • Writer’s Workshop • Literacy Response Journals The key is for students to be writing in every subject area in a variety of ways!
RAFTS R – role A – audience F – format T – topic S – strong verb
Role: top math student Audience: your classmates Format: overhead transparency Topic: solve the problem 56 x 22 Strong Verb: create You are a top math student and your teacher has asked you to help your classmates with a math problem. Create an overhead transparency to demonstrate how you would solve the problem 56 x 22. Be sure you include each step in your process so that your classmates will understand how you came up with the correct answer.
Role: you Audience: you and your teacher Format: list Topic: things George Washington accomplished in his lifetime Strong verb: compile While studying U.S. geography, you realize that one state, our capital city, and towns in every state have been named after George Washington. You and your teacher decide to research things George Washington accomplished in his lifetime, in addition to being the first President. Compile a list of the top five contributions you discover.
Role: human brain Audience: the other organs Format: pep talk Topic: keep digestion, respiration and circulation in tip-top shape Strong verb: encourage You are the brain in a human body and you notice that some organs are working well to keep the body functioning. Write a pep talk to give to the organs, encouraging them to keep digestion, respiration, and circulation in tip-top shape. Be sure to include sound reasoning for your concerns.
Assessment-Rubrics • In 2003-2004 North Carolina implemented an analytical scoring model. • Now it is possible for a paper to receive scores ranged from 4-20. • Two assessors determine a score for each component then the two content scores are added together and multiplied by two. The two conventions scores are added together and multiplied by one. Finally, the conventions score and the content scores are added together to determine the total writing score. • Those scores are then placed into: • -Level I 4-7 points (well-below standard) • -Level II 8-11 points (slightly below standard) • -Level III (at standard) 12-16 points • -Level IV (well above standard) 17-20 points. • This newly adopted analytical model has two components, a 1-4 score scale for content and a 0-2 score scale for conventions. • Therefore rubrics which assess different modes of writing should be designed in such a way that they have a grammar/conventions component.
Kinds of Rubrics Task Specific Rubrics • Task specific rubrics are those that have task specific evaluative criteria. These types of rubrics are not the best way to assess student performance because task-specific rubrics place more emphasis on the task as compared to the skill. Hypergeneral Rubrics • Hypergeneral rubrics are those that are on the opposite end of the spectrum from that of task-specific rubrics. Hypergeneral rubrics are those that have very broad evaluative criteria. These rubrics do not clearly state teacher’s expectations for student performance nor can they effectively be used to improve instructional planning. Skill Focused Rubrics • Skill-focused rubrics are those that can be found on the continuum between general and task specific rubrics. Skill-focused rubrics are not so specific they don’t measure an assimilation of skills and yet are not so vague that expectations are not clear. The evaluative criteria for skill-focused rubrics are skills that are instructionally worthy (depth and breadth), encourage assimilation of skills learned throughout an instructional unit, and make clear teacher expectations. In addition, skill-focused rubrics provide better information so teachers can improve their instruction.
Steps to Developing A Scoring Rubric 1. Teacher determines learning targets centered around the North Carolina Standard Course of Study. 2. Determine from work samples if possible, what criteria constitutes the best sore and what lack of evidence warrants a low score. Identify components for success in accomplishing the task. Create characteristics of good and bad performance. 3. Design a rubric that is short and simple a good range of items varies from 4-15. The written and verbal explanations of each criterion should be clear and developmentally appropriate. 4. Decide on how many levels of scoring. Each rubric item should focus on a different skill.
Helpful Terms When Writing Rubrics Terms for measuring range and scoring levels • -Numeric Scale • -Beginning…Developing…Accomplished…Exemplary • -Needs Improvement…Satisfactory…Good…Exemplary • -Needs Work…Good…Excellent • -Novice…Apprentice…Proficient…Distinguished Concept Words That Convey Various Degrees of Performance • Depth…Breadth…Quality…Scope…Extent…Complexity…Degrees… Accuracy • Presence to absence • Complete to incomplete • Many to some to none • Major to minor Circle, bold, italicize words that can vary as you complete each level of accomplishment
Converting Rubric Scores to Grades • Example
Rubric Websites Rubrics http://www.intercom.net/local/school/sdms/mspap/kidwrit.html • Writing rubrics for middle school http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/downloads/pdf/writing_rubric2.pdf • Rubric writing http://www.eduplace.com/cgibin/schtemplate.cgi?template=/rdg/hme/rubrics/toc.thtml&grades=k_5&alt=K-5 • Rubrics for a broad range of modes 2-5 grades. http://www.mrsmcgowan.com/reading/rubrics.htm • Example rubrics for first grade http://mciu.org/~spjvweb/resrub.html • Research writing rubric http://www.maumee.k12.oh.us/Curriculum/Rubrics/kdg.html • Kindergarten rubric example http://edweb.sdsu.edu/triton/july/rubrics/Rubric_Template.html • Rubric template http://members.tripod.com/~ozpk/01rubric • A Great RUBRIC resource with tons of links
Graphic Organizers In order for children to learn effectively, children need to be active learners. Graphic Organizers are a great tool for this! Including graphic organizers in lessons allows the students to experience excitement in learning to read and write. *They provide a visual representation in the relationship of facts and concepts within an organized frame. *They also assist in relating new info to prior knowledge and are helpful in organizing thoughts for writing. *They provide ample opportunities to integrate content area material as part of lessons. *They come in various forms and may be utilized before, during and/or after an instructional activity. - if used before an instructional activity, it helps the students predict possibilities and provides a framework for learning and assimilating new information -if used during instruction, it assists in reorganizing information -if used after instruction, the graphic organizer encourages the student to summarize the learning and organize ideas for writing and elaboration
*The teacher should always explain the purpose of the graphic organizer being taught and model it many times prior to asking students to try the activity independently. TYPES OF GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS Webbing/Mapping: indicates the relationship between ideas *it helps clarify information, stimulate thinking and strengthen memory *circles and lines are used to represent relationships between concepts Semantic/Content/Spider Maps: may be used to learn vocabulary words or to activate prior knowledge in brainstorming (main topics, details to support main topics)
Venn Diagram: a compare/contrast structure where characters, settings and other types of info may be compared through their similarities/differences QAR’s: questions that require the responder to differentiate between literal, interpretive and evaluative information based on the author’s and/or reader’s point of view Story Plan: must read an entire story or a teacher selected portion of a book. *identifies key elements of the story including main characters, setting, problem, solution, and sequences events in the story *assists the students in remembering important story facts in an organized manner *it is an early introduction to outlining and note taking KWL: models the active thinking needed when reading new material or participating in a learning activity. It encourages students to think about ideas and to ask questions while reading. K- what they know about a topic W-what they want to know about the topic L-what they learned Timeline: used to record/correlate events w/given dates and depict correlations
Graphic Organizer Web-Sites http://www.writesite.org/html/organize.html • Excellent graphic organizers for many modes of writing http://www.cheney268.com/Learning/Organizers/Writing.htm • Writing graphic organizers and some rubrics http://www.abcteach.com/directory/researchreports/graphic_organizers/ • More graphic organizers http://22.214.171.124/read/organtable.html • Writing graphic organizers http://www.graphic.org/goindex.html • Includes a variety of graphic organizers and suggests the modes in which these graphic organizers should be used. http://cuip.uchicago.edu/~mmanning/2001/graphicorganizers.htm • A site with graphic organizers. http://www.enchantedlearning.com/graphicorganizers/ • An excellent cache of graphic organizers! http://www.smcps.k12.md.us/mbms/writing/graphorg.html • More writing graphic organizers. http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/science/instr/wrgrorg.htm • This site provides graphic organizers for writing in science.
Model Writing As with other subjects and content areas, you have to model writing. If you are writing in journals then you should provide students an example of a journal that you wrote. Since students learn by example, your model will show them how writers think through the writing process.
Use a Variety of Writing Formats List of Writing Formats is from Writing to Prompts in the Trait –Based Classroom :Literature Response by Ruth Culham & Amanda Wheeler advertisement anecdote announcement application biographical sketch blurb board game brochure caption commentary consumer guide contest entry critique Dear Abby Letter debate definition dialogue diary entry dictionary entry directions discussion editorial e-mail encyclopedia entry epitaph eulogy free verse poem graffiti greeting card historical account instructions interview introduction journal entry last will and testament lecture legislation lesson plan letter letter to the editor list map math problem memo menu monologue motto newspaper article note oration package copy parody personalized license plate poems post card poster prediction prophecy puzzle rebuttal request resume Review screen play sermon ship log short story skit slogan song speech stream of consciousness summary survival manual telegram telephone dialogue test questions thumbnail sketch top-ten list travelogue wanted poster word puzzle
Use Children’s Literature as Exemplar Models Look for opportunities to provide literature links for writing, just like in other content/subject areas. Students use literature as a form of scaffolding when writing. They are able to borrow ideas and weave them into their own writing. Using children’s literature is just another way to model and inspire different types of styles, genres and formats writers use.