Strategies. Presented by: Amanda Burleson Anne Donadio Cynthia Townsend. The Writing Process. Usually includes five steps: Prewriting (generating ideas, mental rehearsal for writing) Drafting (writing in process)
Writers move back and forth among the first three stages as they begin to recognize a need to rework their written thoughts.
“Successful writers may go through many if not all, of these steps in an order that makes sense for their work. Sometimes students are just ready to write. Brainstorming and story-mapping an idea that is ready to be written may just suck the life out of it before the students start writing. Often, given the freedom an flexibility to do so, students write something and then in revision, back up and create a whole new draft based on what they discovered was important from their first attempt. Writing is not a linear process. Never has been; never will be.”
Materials: Teacher-made journals, spiral notebooks, pencils, big erasers, markers, colored pencils, dictionaries, word wall
Oral Language is very important in helping students plan their ideas.
*Teacher models what is expected.
*Teacher teaches mini-lesson.
*Expectations build throughout the year when new concepts are taught. The students are expected to apply these learned strategies.
*Students are expected to write for the entire Writer’s Workshop time.
*Teacher/Student Conference: Teachers give feedback on written work. Teacher asks questions to help the student think about their writing. From these questions, the students make decisions about changing their work. Students revise their work, finding ways to make their work better (polish).
*Editing checklist should be posted in the classroom. These lists change as the year progresses and different skills are taught.
*A piece is finished when the student has completed the checklist.
*Students can share their work and celebrate their success!
Writer’s Workshop Outline
A mini lesson can be a whole class or small group lesson. It can be as simple as guided writing from a story, or how editing marks are used.
Status of the Class provides the student and the teacher with information about how the student’s work is progressing.
Students may write in various modes. The teacher conferences with students to help them with the revision and editing. Some teachers use peer conferencing during this time, however for this piece to be successful the teacher must model expectations. If peer editing is included TAG is a great strategy to use. Tag stands for –Tell one thing you liked about the story, Ask one question, and Give a suggestion.
The Author’s Chair may still be used to share a “published book.” Published works can also be shared in pairs, or by allowing students read published works to themselves.
Organization-One teacher said, “I have a poster with library pockets for each student. In each pocket I have 3 cards, red=Work in progress, Yellow=Illustrating, Green=Publishing.” Some teachers record the status of the class, but this is a great visual for status of the class that students can be responsible for.
Decide on your requirements for publication:
Front Cover: typically a piece of colored construction paper with title, author’s name, and illustration (This information can be completed after the book is written and revised)
Title Page: with title, author’s name, and illustration (may be optional if student is writing a longer text) and date of completion.
Story Pages: in order with page numbers, with optional illustrations.
Back Cover: usually a piece of colored construction paper (can include an Author’s page and self portrait or student photo on the inside).
-topic selection -add details
-what to do when your stuck -peer editing
-narrowing your focus -peer revising
-voice -story sequence
-quality illustrations during publishing -expanding
-sentence fluency vocabulary to
-grammar sharpen descriptions
-visual details -describing with
-condense story -expand story/par
-transition words story
-linking sounds and actions -alliteration
“Writing across the curriculum isn’t just a method of getting students to write who are afraid of writing. It is also a method of getting students to learn what they were afraid of learning.”
Writing to Learn
The key is for students to be writing
in every subject area in a variety of ways!
R – role
A – audience
F – format
T – topic
S – strong verb
Audience: your classmates
Format: overhead transparency
Topic: solve the problem 56 x 22
Strong Verb: create
You are a top math student and your teacher has asked you to help your classmates with a math problem. Create an overhead transparency to demonstrate how you would solve the problem 56 x 22. Be sure you include each step in your process so that your classmates will understand how you came up with the correct answer.
Audience: you and your teacher
Topic: things George Washington accomplished in his lifetime
Strong verb: compile
While studying U.S. geography, you realize that one state, our capital city, and towns in every state have been named after George Washington. You and your teacher decide to research things George Washington accomplished in his lifetime, in addition to being the first President. Compile a list of the top five contributions you discover.
Audience: the other organs
Format: pep talk
Topic: keep digestion, respiration and circulation in tip-top shape
Strong verb: encourage
You are the brain in a human body and you notice that some organs are working well to keep the body functioning. Write a pep talk to give to the organs, encouraging them to keep digestion, respiration, and circulation in tip-top shape. Be sure to include sound reasoning for your concerns.
Task Specific Rubrics
Skill Focused Rubrics
1. Teacher determines learning targets centered around the North Carolina Standard Course of Study.
2. Determine from work samples if possible, what criteria constitutes the best sore and what lack of evidence warrants a low score. Identify components for success in accomplishing the task. Create characteristics of good and bad performance.
3. Design a rubric that is short and simple a good range of items varies from 4-15. The written and verbal explanations of each criterion should be clear and developmentally appropriate.
4. Decide on how many levels of scoring. Each rubric item should focus on a different skill.
Terms for measuring range and scoring levels
Concept Words That Convey Various Degrees of Performance
Circle, bold, italicize words that can vary as you complete each level of accomplishment
In order for children to learn effectively, children need to be active learners. Graphic Organizers are a great tool for this! Including graphic organizers in lessons allows the students to experience excitement in learning to read and write.
*They provide a visual representation in the relationship of facts and concepts within an organized frame.
*They also assist in relating new info to prior knowledge and are helpful in organizing thoughts for writing.
*They provide ample opportunities to integrate content area material as part of lessons.
*They come in various forms and may be utilized before, during and/or after an instructional activity.
- if used before an instructional activity, it helps the students predict possibilities and provides a framework for learning and assimilating new information
-if used during instruction, it assists in reorganizing information
-if used after instruction, the graphic organizer encourages the student to summarize the learning and organize ideas for writing and elaboration
TYPES OF GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS
Webbing/Mapping: indicates the relationship between ideas
*it helps clarify information, stimulate thinking and strengthen
*circles and lines are used to represent relationships between concepts
Semantic/Content/Spider Maps: may be used to learn vocabulary words or to activate prior knowledge in brainstorming (main topics, details to support main topics)
QAR’s: questions that require the responder to differentiate between literal, interpretive and evaluative information based on the author’s and/or reader’s point of view
Story Plan: must read an entire story or a teacher selected portion of a book.
*identifies key elements of the story including main characters, setting, problem, solution, and sequences events in the story
*assists the students in remembering important story facts in an organized manner
*it is an early introduction to outlining and note taking
KWL: models the active thinking needed when reading new material or participating in a learning activity. It encourages students to think about ideas and to ask questions while reading.
K- what they know about a topic
W-what they want to know about the topic
L-what they learned
Timeline: used to record/correlate events w/given dates and depict correlations
As with other subjects and content areas, you have to model writing. If you are writing in journals then you should provide students an example of a journal that you wrote. Since students learn by example, your model will show them how writers think through the writing process.
List of Writing Formats is from Writing to Prompts in the Trait –Based Classroom :Literature Response by Ruth Culham & Amanda Wheeler
Dear Abby Letter
free verse poem
last will and testament
letter to the editor
personalized license plate
stream of consciousness
Look for opportunities to provide literature links for writing, just like in other content/subject areas. Students use literature as a form of scaffolding when writing. They are able to borrow ideas and weave them into their own writing. Using children’s literature is just another way to model and inspire different types of styles, genres and formats writers use.