Strategies SIOP Component 4
Entry Task Make a list of instructional methods to make content more comprehensible for English learners, struggling students, students who lack background knowledge, etc. On the yellow half-sheet in the center of the table, highlight methods you omitted.
Today’s Goals / Objectives Content Objectives: Know three features of SIOP component, Strategies: • Teach learning strategies • Use scaffolding techniques • Use higher order questioning Language Objectives: • Discuss and generate metaphors to assist student learning • Create metaphors to practice vocabulary terms
Strategies Teach Learning Strategies Scaffold Instruction Ask higher order thinking questions
SIOP Component 4 Strategies Feature 13: Teach learning strategies
Read the following passage and discuss what you think is happening. “He put down $10 at the window. The woman behind the window gave him back $4.00. The person next to him gave him $3.00, but he gave it back to her. So, when they went inside, she bought him a large bag of popcorn.”
Step Inside a Classroom • Teacher: What can you tell me about this passage? • S1: This doesn’t make any sense. • S2: It sort of does, down here, with the popcorn. Maybe it’s about a movie. • S3: It doesn’t say anything about a movie. • S1: I don’t get it. • S3: This is stupid.
What’s Happening? • “These students don’t understand that learning requires action on their part…. They expect the text to provide everything. Their job, they believe, is at most to decode the print. After that, well, if the meaning isn’t immediately apparent, they stop reading or ask us to explain.” (Beers, 2003, pg. 69)
Two Types of Strategies The process of purposefully monitoring our thinking is referred to as metacognition. Cognitive strategies help students organize the information they are expected to learn through the process of self-regulated learning.
Learning Strategy Examples • Colorful Writing • ACCESS: Weekly Record • Reading Strategies for Content Areas • Say Something • Graphic Organizers http://www.worksheetworks.com/miscellanea/graphic-organizers.html
A New Tool: Wrappers • A wrapper is an activity that surrounds a pre-existing learning or assessment task and fosters students’ metacognition • One can build a self-monitoring wrapper around any pre-existing part of a course (lecture, homework, test)
Why Wrappers Work • Time efficient (students will use them) • Students are doing the task anyway • Wrapper only adds a few minutes of time • Metacognition practice is integrated with the task • Students are self-monitoring in the context where it is needed • Feedback on accuracy can be built in • Wrapper support can be gradually faded
Lecture Wrappers • How they work: • Before lecture, present tips on active listening • After lecture, students get index cards on which to write 3 key ideas from lecture • Instructor gives his list of 3 key ideas for students to self-check
Homework Wrappers • Instructor creates self-assessment questions that focus on skills students should be monitoring • Students answer questions just before homework “This homework is about vector arithmetic… How quickly and easily can you solve problems that involve vector subtraction?” • Complete homework as usual • After homework, answer similar self-assessment questions and draw their own conclusions “Now that you have completed this homework, how quickly and easily can you solve problems…?”
Exam Wrappers How they work • Upon returning graded exam, students completed exam reflection sheet in class Report study strategies, analyze errors, identify new approaches as needed • Before the next exam, return sheets to students for review and consideration, and have students made a study plan
Metaphor in Motion “It’s an extraordinary claim, but I’ll make it anyway. There is nothing in the K-12 curriculum that is so symbolic or abstract that we could not create a physical comparison that would sharpen students’ understanding.” Rick Wormeli, 2009
Metaphor in Motion Turn a learning target into a metaphor: • Sentence Types • Answering an essay question • Math equations • Parts of speech • Reading fiction • Reading nonfiction • Cell parts • Other (What you are currently teaching) Metaphor Survey
SIOP Component 4 Strategies Feature 14: Use scaffolding techniques
Other Scaffolding techniques Increasing Independence Teach Model Practice Apply Small Group Whole Class Partners Independent Work Teacher Centered Teacher Assisted Peer Assisted Student Centered
The Equalizer An academic equalizer identifies a variety of instructional elements that can be scaffolded or adjusted to challenge or support students at different levels of readiness. A graphic equalizer is a high-fidelity audio control that allows the user to see graphically and control individually a number of different frequency bands in a stereophonic system.
SIOP Component 4 Strategies Feature 15: Use higher order questioning
Use Higher Order Questioning Conversational Proficiency - BICS Knowledge Comprehension Application Analysis Synthesis Evaluation Academic Proficiency - CALP Dr. J. Cummins
Use Higher Order Questioning • 80% of questions teachers ask are at the literal or knowledge level • Higher level questions require learners to elaborate and help improve their ability to speak and use the vocabulary they’ve learned
Questions about questioning • How many questions do teachers ask on average, per teacher per year? • 80,000 • How many questions related to academics do students ask on average, per student, per year? • 10
For today’s vocabulary review, work at your table to create an effective metaphor for each of the course vocabulary terms. A graphic organizer will be provided.
BONUS: What does Harvard expect readers to do? “Interrogating” a Text: • Previewing • Annotating • Outline, summarize, analyze • Look for repetitions and patterns • Contextualize • Compare and Contrast http://hcl.harvard.edu/research/guides/lamont_handouts/interrogatingtexts.html
Each E-log should clearly reflect the last class session. Points may be earned for the following: • Case Study Student – BLUE font. • Successes / Aha Moments – GREEN font. • Student “data” for use in instruction– PINK font. • Differentiation Strategies – ORANGE font . • Cooperative Learning / Interaction – PURPLE font. • Academic Vocabulary– BROWN font. • Building Community– NAVY font. • Obstacles/Questions– RED font. Please examine the website for resources; there are numerous! Don’t underestimate the power of asking students to monitor their own thinking and learning.