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Perception Continued. Visual Capture tendency for vision to dominate the other senses Movie theater – we perceive sounds as coming from the screen in front of us, not from the projector behind us. Visual vs. Major Mistakes?. https://

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Presentation Transcript
Visual Capture
    • tendency for vision to dominate the other senses
      • Movie theater – we perceive sounds as coming from the screen in front of us, not from the projector behind us
visual vs major mistakes
Visual vs. Major Mistakes?
perceptual organization gestalt
Perceptual Organization: Gestalt
  • Gestalt: an organized whole
    • Gestalt Psychology: emphasizes our tendency to integrate pieces of information into meaningful wholes
perceptual organization
Perceptual Organization
  • Figure and Ground--organization of the visual field into objects (figures) that stand out from their surroundings (ground)
perceptual organization gestalt1
Perceptual Organization: Gestalt

Grouping: the perceptual tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups

Grouping Principles

  • proximity--group nearby figures together
  • similarity--group figures that are similar
  • continuity--perceive continuous patterns
  • closure--fill in gaps
  • connectedness--spots, lines, and areas are seen as unit when connected


perceptual organization grouping principles
Perceptual Organization: Grouping Principles
  • Gestalt grouping principles are at work here
  • What do you see?
reification gestalt property
Reification (Gestalt Property)
  • object is perceived as

having more spatial

information than is

actually present in

the original stimulus

depth perception
Depth Perception

FACT: Objects presented to our retinae in 2-D, yet we perceive them in 3-D

How? Depth perception – we estimate distances from us using various strategies

visual cliffs cues
Visual Cliffs & Cues

Visual Cliff – lab device testing depth perception in infants and young animals.

  • Monocular Cues – available to each eye separately
  • Binocular Cues – require both eyes
binocular cues help perceive depth
Binocular Cues – help perceive depth
  • Retinal disparity –the greater the difference between two images the retina receives of an object, the closer the object is to the viewer
  • Convergence –extent to which the eyes converge inward when looking at an object
monocular cues
Monocular Cues
  • Relative motion (motion parallax)
  • Light & Shadow
  • Linear Perspective
  • Relative size
  • Relative clarity
  • Texture gradient
  • Relative height
  • Interposition:
perceiving motion
Perceiving Motion
  • Motion pictures
    • Really just consecutive images
    • Super quick slide show  we perceive motion
  • Phi phenomenon
    • Illusion of movement created with two or more adjacent lights blink on an off in succession
      • “moving” Christmas lights

Perceptual constancy – perceiving objects as unchanging even as retinal images change

    • We recognize objects/people at different angles, distances, lights, etc.
  • Shape & Size constancy- different angles/distances change shape and size, we are still able to recognize objects
    • Ex. 
lightness constancy
Lightness Constancy
  • Lightness constancy (aka brightness constancy
    • We perceive an object as having a constant lightness
    • Actual: lightness varies
  • Relative lumanance– comparison to lightness of objects surrounding it
sensory deprivation restored vision
Sensory Deprivation & Restored Vision
  • “I once was blind, but now I see…”
    • Cortical pathways don’t form correctly
    • Can distinguish color, figure/ground
    • Can’t recognize objects they learned through touch
perceptual adaptation
Perceptual Adaptation
  • - when visual input changes, we adapt (i.e. new glasses)
  • - shifted reality (for whatever reason) we adapt quickly with assistance and without - we can adapt (not all species can)
  • - we can even adapt to upside down shifts!
perceptual set
Perceptual set
  • - mental disposition to perceive one thing and not the other
  • ex. if we are told what to expect, we see it or confirm it (subliminal messages, misleading photos)
  • Context effects- we make assumptions based on experience, previous interactions, etc.
esp extrasensory perception
ESP - extrasensory perception
  • - controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input.
    • - parapsychology - the study of paranormal phenomena, including ESP and psychokinesis
    • telepathy- mind to mind communication
    • clairvoyance- perceiving remote events (sensing something bad is occurring right now)
    • precognition- perceiving future events (game bets, etc)
    • psychokinesis- the idea of mind over matter (levitating a table, etc)
  • when put to the experimentation phase - no ESP has been proven (remember our first video we watched?)