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Preliminary Results for Near-Term (2015) Terminal Area DME/DME RNAV Enhancements for OAK PowerPoint Presentation
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Preliminary Results for Near-Term (2015) Terminal Area DME/DME RNAV Enhancements for OAK

Preliminary Results for Near-Term (2015) Terminal Area DME/DME RNAV Enhancements for OAK

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Preliminary Results for Near-Term (2015) Terminal Area DME/DME RNAV Enhancements for OAK

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  1. Rick Niles Tom Hsiao Walt Scales Preliminary Results for Near-Term (2015) Terminal Area DME/DME RNAV Enhancements for OAK

  2. Contents • Introduction, requirements, methodology • Part I: Current operations and environment • Part II: Current DME infrastructure and DME/DME RNAV service • Part III: Recommended infrastructure improvements to achieve the user service requirements • Part IV: Sensitivity analysis • Appendix: Potential sites for new DME facilities

  3. Table 1: Near Term (2015) – Navigation Infrastructure Performance Requirements Capability 95% NSE # Airports Coverage Area Coverage Altitude Availability RNP-1.0 Terminal 1604m 34 OEPs SID/STAR areas out to 130NM 1000AGL-FL180 99.9% RNP-2.0 Terminal 3207m 34 OEPs SID/STAR areas out to 200NM FL180-FL450 99.9% RNP-2.0 En Route 3207m N/A CONUS FL240-FL450 99.9% DME/DME RNAV Performance Requirements for the 2015 Time Frame Acronyms and abbreviations AGL = Above Ground Level CONUS = Contiguous United States FL = Flight Level m = meters NM = Nautical Miles NSE = Navigation System Error OEP = Operational Evolution Partnership SID = Standard Instrument Departure STAR = Standard Arrival Route Premise: Any investments needed meet these requirements will be driven by user benefits.  The relevant RNAV coverage is the coverage as seen by a user who (minimally) complies with AC 90-100A. Note: Terminal area requirements are unchanged for the far term (2025) environment. However, the airports are expanded to the “100 busiest airports”.

  4. General Assumptions • Service improvements are intended to accommodate DME/DME (no inertial) RNAV. • Pending the issuance of an AC for RNP SIDs and STARs, RNP and RNAV are assumed to be equivalent in terms of coverage areas. (The 95% NSE values for RNP 1 and RNP 2 in Table 1 above are compatible with RNAV 1 and RNAV 2, respectively.)Note: The difference in coverage between RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 is relatively small. • AC 90-100A is currently the sole applicable document for defining operational DME/DME RNAV coverage as a function of the infrastructure. • The maximum allowable coverage gap is 4 NM in any dimension. • Each RNP SID and STAR will have a single RNP value for the entire procedure. (Therefore the RNP 1 requirement is applicable for the entire coverage area.) • The coverage areas defined in Table 1 above apply to altitudes-vs.-distance (from airport) constraints that are consistent with turbojet arrival and departure patterns. Service and infrastructure improvements to accommodate propeller aircraft operating at lower altitudes will not be proposed.

  5. Assumptions (concluded) • Infrastructure investments to enhance offshore service are beyond the scope of this effort. • New DME facilities will be capable of providing service compatible with ARINC 424 FOM 2 (maximum range of 130 NM). • DME “Y” channels are available for new facilities, if required for frequency management purposes. • FAA policy and procedures will accommodate stand-alone DME facilities. • The FAA is responsible for final business case decisions on infrastructure investments. • Future phases of this effort will encompass • Loading/capacity analyses • Service/infrastructure improvements for the far term (2025), potential infrastructure reductions • Detailed implementation plans, including site surveys

  6. Coverage calculation per AC 90-100A Coverage calculation per AC 90-100A Propagation model Propagation model Terrain data base Terrain data base Infrastructure data base Infrastructure data base Critical facilities Overview of the Methodology Identify Shortfalls in Service (Coverage, Availability)‏ Identify Actions to Fill Coverage Gaps Identify Actions to Achieve 99.9% Service Availability Service per AC 90-100A and requirements on slide 3

  7. Part I: Current Environment and Operations (KOAK)

  8. Airport Layout and Sectional View Source: SkyVector.com NOT FOR OPERATIONAL USE

  9. Current Arrivals and Departures • Conventional Arrivals • COMMO ONE • HADLY TWO • LOCKE ONE • MADWIN FOUR • MANTECA ONE • MARVN ONE • PANOCHE TWO •  RNAV Arrivals • RAIDR TWO (RNAV) • Conventional Departures • COAST FIVE • MARINA FOUR  • NIMITZ TWO  • NUEVO FIVE • OAKLAND FIVE  • SALAD ONE  • SCAGGS ISLAND ONE • SILENT SEVEN  • SKYLINE THREE

  10. Current Turbojet Arrival and Departure Profiles • The dominant (lowest) traffic profile is • The turbojet arrival profile Altitude (ft. above airport elevation) Altitude (ft. above airport elevation) Distance from Airport (NM) Distance from Airport (NM) Departures Arrivals The turbojet arrival profile determines the slope and intercept of the conical analysis surface (see next slide).

  11. Analysis Surfaces for KOAK Terminal Area DME/DME RNAV Coverage Multiple horizontal surfaces from 18,000 ft. to 23,000 ft. to edge of conical surface. DRAWING NOT TO SCALE En route airspace begins at FL 240 Slope and intercept for conical surface are derived from KOAK turbojet arrival profiles 2 deg conical surface Horizontal surface to edge of cone 1000 ft. Above Ground Level (AGL) KOAK 9' MSL 10 NM

  12. Part II: Current DME Infrastructure and DME/DME RNAV Service Document Number Here

  13. Baseline DME Facilities within 200 NM of KOAK

  14. Baseline H Class DME Facilities between 200 NM and 300 NM from KOAK

  15. Redundant coverage (no critical facilities) Redundant coverage (no critical facilities) Single critical facility Single critical facility Two critical facilities No coverage No coverage, terrain Area Coverage Maps and Color Codes Coverage per AC 90-100A (RNAV 1) The coverage maps contained in this document reflect coverage as seen by a DME/DME RNAV system that minimally conforms with AC 90-100A (RNAV 1). It is not a requirement of AC 90-100A that coverage be constrained to FAA standard service volumes. These areas should meet the 99.9% service availability requirements without further improvements. These areas provide coverage at less than the required 99.9% service availability. Green/red areas would change to white if a critical facility were removed. Coverage gaps: New facilities at new sites would be required to eliminate coverage gaps in these areas. Within 1000 vertical ft. of terrain (2000 ft. in designated mountainous areas) As a matter of frequency management, extended service volumes may be required for routes/procedures in these areas. Note: “Critical” is defined in terms of coverage per AC 90-100A.

  16. DRAWING NOT TO SCALE 2 degree slope 1000 ft. Above Ground Level (AGL) KOAK 9 ' MSL 10 NM Current KOAK Terminal Area DME/DME RNAV Coverage at 1000 ft. AGL Coverage per AC 90-100A (RNAV 1), baseline DME facilities Terrain Depiction Disabled

  17. Current KOAK Terminal Area DME/DME RNAV Coverage on 2 Degree Conical Surface Coverage per AC 90-100A (RNAV 1), baseline DME facilities DRAWING NOT TO SCALE 2 degree slope 1000 ft. above apt. elev. KOAK 9 ' MSL 10 NM

  18. Current KOAK DME/DME RNAV Coverage at 18,000 ft. and 19,000 ft. MSL Coverage per AC 90-100A (RNAV 1), baseline DME facilities 19,000 ft. MSL 18,000 ft. MSL

  19. Current KOAK DME/DME RNAV Coverage at 20,000 ft. and 21,000 ft. MSL Coverage per AC 90-100A (RNAV 1), baseline DME facilities 20,000 ft. MSL 21,000 ft. MSL

  20. Current KOAK DME/DME RNAV Coverage at 22,000 ft. and 23,000 ft. MSL Coverage per AC 90-100A (RNAV 1), baseline DME facilities 22,000 ft. MSL 23,000 ft. MSL

  21. Part III: Recommended Infrastructure Improvements to Achieve the User Service Requirements

  22. Part IIIa: Infrastructure Improvements to Eliminate Coverage Gaps • The following coverage analyses are based on a new, fully redundant, high power DME facility at • HAF (Half Moon Bay Airport) • This new facility was also recommended to enhance coverage for KSFO • Although it does not address 100% of the coverage low altitude gaps for KOAK, the remaining low altitude gaps are separated from KOAK by high terrain that is believed to render the remaining gaps largely unusable (at 1,000 ft. AGL) for KOAK arrivals and departures. See Slide 25

  23. Part IIIb: Infrastructure Improvements to Achieve 99.9% Availability of Operational Service • The following DME facilities would require full redundancy and backup power (or equivalent measures) to meet the 99.9% RNAV service requirement: • CZQ (Clovis VORTAC) • OAK (Oakland VORTAC) • OSI (Woodside VORTAC) • SFO (San Francisco VOR/DME) • SGD (Scaggs Island VORTAC) • SNS (Salinas VORTAC)

  24. Enhanced Coverage at 1000 ft. AGL Coverage per AC 90-100A (RNAV 1) This valley is separated from KOAK by the Oakland Hills (up to 2,000 ft. elevation). See next slide. Current Infrastructure Enhanced Infrastructure Terrain Depiction Disabled

  25. Unrepaired Low Altitude Coverage Gap East of OAK “A” KOAK Terrain profile “A” Area “A” (at 1,000 ft. AGL) is believed to be unviable airspace for OAK arrivals and departures (because of the intervening Oakland Hills). Coverage at 1,000 ft. AGL “A” Terrain Depiction Disabled

  26. Enhanced Coverage on Conical Surface Coverage per AC 90-100A (RNAV 1) Current Infrastructure Enhanced Infrastructure

  27. Current and Enhanced DME/DME RNAV Coverage at 18,000 ft. MSL Coverage per AC 90-100A (RNAV 1) Current Infrastructure Enhanced Infrastructure

  28. Current and Enhanced DME/DME RNAV Coverage at 19,000 ft. MSL Coverage per AC 90-100A (RNAV 1) Current Infrastructure Enhanced Infrastructure

  29. Current and Enhanced DME/DME RNAV Coverage at 20,000 ft. MSL Coverage per AC 90-100A (RNAV 1) Current Infrastructure Enhanced Infrastructure

  30. Current and Enhanced DME/DME RNAV Coverage at 21,000 ft. MSL Coverage per AC 90-100A (RNAV 1) Current Infrastructure Enhanced Infrastructure

  31. Current and Enhanced DME/DME RNAV Coverage at 22,000 ft. MSL Coverage per AC 90-100A (RNAV 1) Current Infrastructure Enhanced Infrastructure

  32. Current and Enhanced DME/DME RNAV Coverage at 23,000 ft. MSL Coverage per AC 90-100A (RNAV 1) Current Infrastructure Enhanced Infrastructure

  33. Part IV: Sensitivity Analyses This section illustrates the investment that would be required for arrivals (STARs) only, on the assumption that coverage for arrivals would not be required below 2,000 feet (above the airport elevation).

  34. Conical Surfaces Down to 2,000 ft. above Airport Reference Point Coverage per AC 90-100A (RNAV 1) Current Infrastructure Enhanced Infrastructure This case requires the same infrastructure changes as the baseline case.

  35. Appendix: Potential Sites for New DME Facilities

  36. HAF (Half Moon Bay) Data from NFDC Source: AirNav.com Source: SkyVector.com