AF 202. Aeronautical Decision Making. Objectives. Intro Decision Making Risk Assessment Hazardous Attitudes Hazard Detection DECIDE model. ADM. Aeronautical Decision Making A systematic approach to risk assessment and stress management
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Aeronautical Decision Making
A systematic approach to risk assessment and stress management
Helps us understand how personal attitudes influence decision making
Helps us see how we can modify those attutudes
Progress is being made to improve aircraft equipment and systems along with pilot services.
However the human factor of flight remains the same
80% of all aviation accidents are attributed to the human factor
The FAA believes that good judgment is something you can be taught not just a by-product of experience
Do you think it is possible to be taught good judgment?
If so, what can prevent someone from being taught good judgment?
How to improve your decision making
Identify personal attitudes hazardous to safe flying
Learn behavior modification techniques
Learning how to recognize and cope with stress
Developing risk assessment skills
Having the ability to evaluate your ADM skills (self honesty)
The two defining elements of ADM are hazard and risk
Hazard being the condition, event or circumstance encountered
Risk is the assessment of the seriousness of that hazard
Pilots can come to different assessments of the same hazard
It is not a guarantee that a, say, less experienced pilot will always under-asses a hazard. The pilot could think it more serious than it really is
One of the first risks is pilot attitude
The FAA groups 5 hazardous attitudes
Hazardous attitudes are not as easily dealt with by just reading a book. WHY?
Some of these attitudes may be temporary due to a ‘bad day’
However much of the danger behind hazardous attitudes is because they can be rooted in our mentality, personality, and cultural influence
This makes identification very personal
Anti – Authority
Don’t like anyone telling you what to do
Thinks the rules are silly or unnecessary
You always question authority
Subtly can be present simply by the easy lack of respect of persons in authority
Ignore rules meant for safety or reasons that you may not know about
Won’t take seriously the lessons or wisdom taught by those in authority which could help you in the end
In reality, if it doesn’t kill you or get you in trouble, it will probably get you fired
Impulsive shopping may leave you with credit card debt, but impulsive flying could leave you DEAD!
Reacting to situations without thinking about them
Assessment of the seriousness of the risk is usually wrong
If you over-react to a non-serious risk you could make a non-serious situation more serious
Improper assessment could lead you to the wrong action for the situation
You basically are ignoring what you have been taught. All wisdom goes out the window
False sense of security
All that ‘stuff’ happens to other people
Could be an over estimation of your ability
“It happens to them because they’re idiots”
Too relaxed on procedures and precautionary actions (i.e. clearing turns, position reporting)
Not fully prepared when a situation actually does happen to you
A better chance you’ll take more foolish risks
The pilot disease
Prove yourself to others or just to get attention (or impress a girl so you can have a valentines date)
Think you need to be better than everyone
You do stupid stuff!!
The desire to be better, to be liked, to impress, to be recognized, to be applauded by other people can be stronger than your reason if left unchecked
It can backfire on you quick
Give up because “what’s the use? I can’t make a difference.”
It’s all based on luck, karma, the alignment of the stars anyway
Leave the response to the situation up to others
You don’t question others when you should just because you are a ‘nice guy.’
A fixable situation never gets fixed
Other people do things they shouldn’t because you were to ‘nice’ to confront them
You are really an ineffective pilot because the majority of training is not so you can stay level, but deal with hazardous situation.
After all a computer can stay level so why do we need you?
Honestly, though most issues are not able to be summed up by 5 attitudes and many issues are a combination of them
Operational pitfalls are classic behavioral traps which pilots often fall into (Can you see which hazardous attitudes come into play?)
An emotional response to what others think about you
Inability to recognize or cope with changes that are different from anticipated or planned
Fixation on the goal or destination impairs good judgment and disregards any alternative course of action (like not going!)
“Sneak a peek” by ducking under minimums on an approach because you assume there is a ‘fudge’ factor for obstacle clearance
Pushing pilot and aircraft limits trying to maintain visual contact with terrain while trying to avoid it
Continuing VFR into IFR
Just stupid (especially if not Instrument rated)
Getting behind the aircraft
Allowing the situation to control you instead of controlling the situation
Constantly surprised. moments of blank thought since you don’t know what to do
Lost of situation awareness
Like getting behind the aircraft but specifically related to keeping track of where you are
Operating without adequate fuel reserve
Simply ignoring the rules so you don’t have to stop for refuel and can stretch it that “extra mile.”
Flying outside the envelope
Flying a little overweight or a little out of CG range. After all there is probably ‘fudge factor’ built in.
Neglect flight planning/preflight
Is the plane really safe?
Do you really know where you’re going
Are you really prepared for what could happen?
Is the weather really going to cooperate?
P for Pilot
Am I ready for this trip?
Mentally – Hazardous Attitudes, stress
Physically – IMSAFE checklist
Experientially – Do I meet proper currency requirements
A for Aircraft
Am I familiar with this aircraft
Is it equipped properly and functioning
Do I have the proper runway length
It is weighted properly
Can it make it high enough to clear all obstacles or terrain?
Is the plane properly and sufficiently fueled
V for enVironment
Current weather here, enroute, and at destination
Will a slight change in un-forecasted weather be hazardous
Am I comfortable with the weather situations I could encounter
Can I handle the terrain I am over
Do I know all I can about the airport
Do I know all airspace I may encounter
E for External Pressures
Job pressures (don’t disappoint the passenger)
Desire to prove yourself or impress
Pride to meet a challenge that may be above your experience level
While making decisions is often an automatic process, knowing whether you have the proper thought process is important
Without knowing your thought process you can easily be led into impulsivity
The DECIDE model with an engine failure during cruise flight
Detect…that something has changed
Hey my engine has failed on me, that is different than it was before
Most people get this part
Estimate…the severity of the situation and a need to react
I think my engine being failed is pretty serious and something should be done about it
Again this is usually obvious to people
Choose…a desirable outcome
What would be the best outcome to this engine failure?
Most students show, by their actions, that the best outcome is to land in a field
Wouldn’t the best outcome be that the engine starts again???
Identify…necessary actions to reach the desired outcome previously discussed
If you want the engine to start, do the engine restart procedure, not look for a field
In all honestly this procedure in a 172 takes 7 seconds (assuming you know the engine restart procedure)
Do…the actions you just identified as necessary
So do the engine restart procedure
Evaluate…The effects of the actions
Hey the engine started so we’re ok, maybe I should go home though
Hey the engine is still dead, go back to Choose
While this may seem silly, it is to prove a point. That point being…THINK!!
What outcome is best and if it is in your power to do something about it, then DO IT!
If that outcome does not happen then what is second best.