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AF 202. Aeronautical Decision Making. Objectives. Intro Decision Making Risk Assessment Hazardous Attitudes Hazard Detection DECIDE model. ADM. Aeronautical Decision Making A systematic approach to risk assessment and stress management

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Presentation Transcript
objectives
Objectives

Intro

Decision Making

Risk Assessment

Hazardous Attitudes

Hazard Detection

DECIDE model

slide3
ADM

Aeronautical Decision Making

A systematic approach to risk assessment and stress management

Helps us understand how personal attitudes influence decision making

Helps us see how we can modify those attutudes

slide4
ADM

Progress is being made to improve aircraft equipment and systems along with pilot services.

However the human factor of flight remains the same

80% of all aviation accidents are attributed to the human factor

judgment
Judgment

The FAA believes that good judgment is something you can be taught not just a by-product of experience

Do you think it is possible to be taught good judgment?

If so, what can prevent someone from being taught good judgment?

decision making1
Decision Making

How to improve your decision making

Identify personal attitudes hazardous to safe flying

Learn behavior modification techniques

Learning how to recognize and cope with stress

Developing risk assessment skills

Having the ability to evaluate your ADM skills (self honesty)

risk assessment
Risk Assessment

The two defining elements of ADM are hazard and risk

Hazard being the condition, event or circumstance encountered

Risk is the assessment of the seriousness of that hazard

risk assessment1
Risk Assessment

Pilots can come to different assessments of the same hazard

Pilot experience

Pilot training

Pilot attitude

It is not a guarantee that a, say, less experienced pilot will always under-asses a hazard. The pilot could think it more serious than it really is

hazardous attitudes
Hazardous Attitudes

One of the first risks is pilot attitude

The FAA groups 5 hazardous attitudes

Hazardous attitudes are not as easily dealt with by just reading a book. WHY?

hazardous attitudes1
Hazardous Attitudes

Some of these attitudes may be temporary due to a ‘bad day’

However much of the danger behind hazardous attitudes is because they can be rooted in our mentality, personality, and cultural influence

This makes identification very personal

hazardous attitude
Hazardous Attitude

Anti – Authority

Don’t like anyone telling you what to do

Thinks the rules are silly or unnecessary

You always question authority

Subtly can be present simply by the easy lack of respect of persons in authority

hazardous attitudes2
Hazardous Attitudes

Risk

Ignore rules meant for safety or reasons that you may not know about

Won’t take seriously the lessons or wisdom taught by those in authority which could help you in the end

In reality, if it doesn’t kill you or get you in trouble, it will probably get you fired

hazardous attitude1
Hazardous Attitude

Impulsivity

Impulsive shopping may leave you with credit card debt, but impulsive flying could leave you DEAD!

Reacting to situations without thinking about them

Assessment of the seriousness of the risk is usually wrong

hazardous attitudes3
Hazardous Attitudes

Risk

If you over-react to a non-serious risk you could make a non-serious situation more serious

Improper assessment could lead you to the wrong action for the situation

You basically are ignoring what you have been taught. All wisdom goes out the window

hazardous attitudes4
Hazardous Attitudes

Invulnerability

False sense of security

All that ‘stuff’ happens to other people

Could be an over estimation of your ability

“It happens to them because they’re idiots”

hazardous attitudes5
Hazardous Attitudes

Risk

Too relaxed on procedures and precautionary actions (i.e. clearing turns, position reporting)

Not fully prepared when a situation actually does happen to you

A better chance you’ll take more foolish risks

hazardous attitudes6
Hazardous Attitudes

Macho

The pilot disease

Prove yourself to others or just to get attention (or impress a girl so you can have a valentines date)

Think you need to be better than everyone

hazardous attitudes7
Hazardous Attitudes

Risk

You do stupid stuff!!

The desire to be better, to be liked, to impress, to be recognized, to be applauded by other people can be stronger than your reason if left unchecked

It can backfire on you quick

hazardous attitudes8
Hazardous Attitudes

Resignation

Give up because “what’s the use? I can’t make a difference.”

It’s all based on luck, karma, the alignment of the stars anyway

Leave the response to the situation up to others

You don’t question others when you should just because you are a ‘nice guy.’

hazardous attitudes9
Hazardous Attitudes

Risk

A fixable situation never gets fixed

Other people do things they shouldn’t because you were to ‘nice’ to confront them

You are really an ineffective pilot because the majority of training is not so you can stay level, but deal with hazardous situation.

After all a computer can stay level so why do we need you?

operational pitfalls
Operational Pitfalls

Honestly, though most issues are not able to be summed up by 5 attitudes and many issues are a combination of them

Operational pitfalls are classic behavioral traps which pilots often fall into (Can you see which hazardous attitudes come into play?)

operational pitfalls1
Operational Pitfalls

Peer Pressure

An emotional response to what others think about you

Mind Set

Inability to recognize or cope with changes that are different from anticipated or planned

operational pitfalls2
Operational Pitfalls

Get-There-Itis

Fixation on the goal or destination impairs good judgment and disregards any alternative course of action (like not going!)

Duck-Under Syndrome

“Sneak a peek” by ducking under minimums on an approach because you assume there is a ‘fudge’ factor for obstacle clearance

operational pitfalls3
Operational Pitfalls

Scud Running

Pushing pilot and aircraft limits trying to maintain visual contact with terrain while trying to avoid it

Continuing VFR into IFR

Just stupid (especially if not Instrument rated)

operational pitfalls4
Operational Pitfalls

Getting behind the aircraft

Allowing the situation to control you instead of controlling the situation

Constantly surprised. moments of blank thought since you don’t know what to do

Lost of situation awareness

Like getting behind the aircraft but specifically related to keeping track of where you are

operational pitfalls5
Operational Pitfalls

Operating without adequate fuel reserve

Simply ignoring the rules so you don’t have to stop for refuel and can stretch it that “extra mile.”

Flying outside the envelope

Flying a little overweight or a little out of CG range. After all there is probably ‘fudge factor’ built in.

operational pitfalls6
Operational Pitfalls

Neglect flight planning/preflight

Is the plane really safe?

Do you really know where you’re going

Are you really prepared for what could happen?

Is the weather really going to cooperate?

pave checklist
PAVE Checklist

P for Pilot

Am I ready for this trip?

Mentally – Hazardous Attitudes, stress

Physically – IMSAFE checklist

Experientially – Do I meet proper currency requirements

pave checklist1
PAVE Checklist

A for Aircraft

Am I familiar with this aircraft

Is it equipped properly and functioning

Do I have the proper runway length

It is weighted properly

Can it make it high enough to clear all obstacles or terrain?

Is the plane properly and sufficiently fueled

pave checklist2
PAVE Checklist

V for enVironment

Current weather here, enroute, and at destination

Will a slight change in un-forecasted weather be hazardous

Am I comfortable with the weather situations I could encounter

Can I handle the terrain I am over

Do I know all I can about the airport

Do I know all airspace I may encounter

pave checklist3
PAVE Checklist

E for External Pressures

Job pressures (don’t disappoint the passenger)

Desire to prove yourself or impress

Personal goal

Pride to meet a challenge that may be above your experience level

slide36
ADM

While making decisions is often an automatic process, knowing whether you have the proper thought process is important

Without knowing your thought process you can easily be led into impulsivity

slide37
ADM

The DECIDE model with an engine failure during cruise flight

Detect…that something has changed

Hey my engine has failed on me, that is different than it was before

Most people get this part

slide38
ADM

Estimate…the severity of the situation and a need to react

I think my engine being failed is pretty serious and something should be done about it

Again this is usually obvious to people

slide39
ADM

Choose…a desirable outcome

What would be the best outcome to this engine failure?

Most students show, by their actions, that the best outcome is to land in a field

Wouldn’t the best outcome be that the engine starts again???

slide40
ADM

Identify…necessary actions to reach the desired outcome previously discussed

If you want the engine to start, do the engine restart procedure, not look for a field

In all honestly this procedure in a 172 takes 7 seconds (assuming you know the engine restart procedure)

slide41
ADM

Do…the actions you just identified as necessary

So do the engine restart procedure

Evaluate…The effects of the actions

Hey the engine started so we’re ok, maybe I should go home though

Hey the engine is still dead, go back to Choose

slide42
ADM

While this may seem silly, it is to prove a point. That point being…THINK!!

What outcome is best and if it is in your power to do something about it, then DO IT!

If that outcome does not happen then what is second best.