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DNA Technology Chapter 13 Lab Biology
Genetically Modified Organisms • Modified genome of an organism • Takes DNA from multiple sources and combine them to form a new genome • DNA from same species • DNA from different species- Transgenic organisms
Crops that • Do NOT need fertilizer • Disease resistant plants • Insect resistance • Herbicide resistant • Salt-tolerant plants
Golden Rice • Insertion of genes (Recombinant DNA) -produce a precursor of vitamin A • Helps areas where there is a shortage of dietary vitamin A White rice Golden rice
Dangers of GMO’s • Unexpected allergies • Introduction of new genes to a population • SUPER WEEDS • Creation of invasive species
DNA Fingerprints • I. DNA Fingerprints pattern of bands made up of specific fragments from an individual’s DNA • USED FOR: • DETECTION OF A RELATIVE • SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SPECIES • FORENSICS
Forensics- DNA fingerprinting • VNTR- Variable number tandem repeats • Show variations in length between individuals • Can be compared with DNA databases (CODIS)
How do you make DNA fingerprints? • RFLP (restriction fragment length polymorphism) analysis • 1. extract DNA from specimen using restriction enzymes • 2. separate fragments of DNA using electrophoresis (separates DNA according to size and charge) • 3. placed in wells made on gel and run electric currentthrough gel • 4. blotted onto filter paper/ photgraphic film.
Electrophoresis “electro” = electricity “phoros” = to carry across • Determine the genetic differences and the evolutionary relationship among species of organisms • Method that separates on basis of size, electric charge and other physical properties
Are you related? Linkage analysis • A mother, father, and their four “children”
Accuracy of DNA Fingerprints • DNA fingerprints are very accurate • However, genetic tests can only absolutely disprove, not prove, relationship! • Courts accept 99.5% accuracy as proof of alleged paternity
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) • Used when you only have a TINY piece of DNA • Quickly make many copies of selected segments of the available DNA • Use a PRIMER to initiate replication • DNA doubles every 5 minutes
PCR is used for: • 1. Forensics • increased the amount of DNA evidence for testing • 2. Diagnosing genetic disorders • 3. Studying ancient fragments of DNA (tiny amounts)
Vaccines • Used to improve immunity against certain diseases • Present- Uses weakened or dead versions of the microorganism • Risk of the body not being able to handle the infection • Risk of dead organisms reviving
DNA Vaccines • Future- DNA vaccines- using specific parts of DNA that code for antigens • No risk of infection Avian flu- virus
Cloning • Growing a population of genetically identical cells from a single cell. • 1997 - Ian Wilmut with Dolly, the cloned sheep
Uses • Cloning can be used to test for genetic diseases • Regenerate nerves or spinal cord tissue • Help in plastic surgery • Clone organs for transplantation • Grow skin grafts for burn victims • Manufacture bone, fat, and cartilage
Ethical Issues What are the implications of cloning? How will cloning affect the medical field? What will be the effect on the gene pool? Is there potential for abuse? How should it be regulated? Would you consider cloning yourself?
Stem Cells • Self renewing-regenerate • Multi-potency- can become many different types of cells • Uses • Basic Knowledge of Human Development • Models of Human Disease • Transplantation-Cell Replacement • Drug Development • Organogenesis