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WATER, ENERGY & SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT. ----------------------------------------------------------- Water Policy in the Americas Roundtable Organization of American States Presentation by Dr. Allan R. Hoffman U.S. Department of Energy June 15, 2000. OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION.

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Water energy sustainable development l.jpg


Water Policy in the Americas Roundtable

Organization of American States

Presentation by

Dr. Allan R. Hoffman

U.S. Department of Energy

June 15, 2000

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  • Introductory material

    • Energy & Environment Security Initiative

    • DOE approach

    • Perspectives

    • Health issues

    • Message

  • Water pumping

  • Desalination

  • Water treatment

  • DOE capabilities

  • Conclusions

  • Contact information

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At the U.S. Department of Energy, water issues are being addressed under the Energy & Environment Security Initiative, a formal joint activity with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Defense (and supported by the U.S. Department of State).

The Initiative has two goals:

  • The identification of energy and other environmental stresses that could lead to political and economic instability and/or the outbreak of political conflict

  • The identification and implementation of measures that can help alleviate these stresses

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  • Water is needed for a number of end-uses:

    • drinking water

    • agriculture

    • power plants

    • industrial processes

    • sanitation

  • Optimal solutions can be obtained through a systems approach that integrates consideration of various end-uses, their energy requirements, and their associated economic and environmental costs

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  • “Many of the wars in this century were about oil, but wars of the next century will be about water.” (Ismail Serageldin, Vice President, World Bank, 1996)

  • “The next war in the Middle East will be over water, not politics.” (Boutros Boutros-Ghali, Secretary General, United Nations, 1991)

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  • More than a billion people lack access to safe drinking water

  • About 4 million children below age 5 die each year from waterborne diarrheal diseases (400 per hour)

  • About 60 million children annually reach maturity stunted due to severe nutrient loss/complications from multiple diarrheal episodes

  • About 1 billion people boil their drinking water at home

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  • How to deal with water issues will be a major global concern in the 21st century

  • An important part of addressing water issues is having the energy needed to transport, treat or desalinate water resources

  • A systems approach (e.g., addressing water needs on a regional basis) can produce optimal solutions

  • Water and energy are key components of sustainable economic development, and are inextricably linked

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PUMPING WATER Case Studies from the USAID/USDOE Renewable Energy Program in Mexico

  • USAID development goals:

    • improved agriculture, health, education and environmental protection

    • rural community development

      • electrification

      • potable water

  • Cost-effective renewable energy systems can help meet development goals

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LIFE-CYCLE COST ANALYSISSolar Powered vs. Conventional Water Pumping Systems

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  • El Jeromin, Chihuahua:

    • Cattle ranch – “chamizo” grown for cattle feed

    • Water required: 15,000 liters per day

  • Agua Blanca, BCS

    • Livestock/irrigation ranch (1001 hectares)

    • Water required: 25,000 liters per day

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Life-Cycle Cost AnalysisCase Study-El Jeromín, Chihuahua

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Case Study - El Jeromín, ChihuahuaResults

  • After 2 years, the PV system represents a lower overall expense to the user

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Life-Cycle Cost AnalysisCase Study-Agua Blanca, BCS

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Case Study - Agua Blanca, BCSResults

  • Six years after installation, the PV system represents a lower overall expense

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  • A process for removing dissolved minerals (including, but not limited to, salt) from seawater, brackish water, or treated wastewater

  • A number of technologies have have been developed for desalination: reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, vacuum freezing, distillation, capacitive deionization.

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DESALINATION (continued)

  • While much can be done to improve management of existing water supplies, there is broad agreement that extensive use of desalination will be required to meet the water needs of a growing world population

  • At present, only 0.36% of the world’s waters in rivers, lakes and swamps is sufficiently accessible to be considered a fresh water resource

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  • Reverse Osmosis:

    • pressure is applied to intake water, forcing water molecules through semipermeable membrane. Salt molecules do not pass through membrane. Product water that passes through is potable.

    • On average, energy (electrical) accounts for 41% of total cost.

    • 5,800-12,000 kWh/AF (4.7-5.7 kWh/m3)*

  • Distillation:

    • intake water heated to produce steam. Steam is condensed to produce product water with low salt concentration.

    • energy requirements for distillation technologies (electrical and thermal) are higher than for reverse osmosis technologies.

    • 28,500-33,000 kWh/AF (23-27 kWh/m3)*


      * does not include energy required for pre-treatment, brine disposal and water transport

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  • Energy costs are a principal barrier to greater use of desalination technologies (disposal of residual brine is another)

  • More than 120 countries are now using some desalted seawater, but mostly in the Persian Gulf where energy costs are low (oil, natural gas)

  • Cost of seawater desalination using reverse osmosis has fallen:

    • $23 per 1,000 gallons in 1978 ($5.26/m3)

    • $2 per 1,000 gallons ($0.55/m3) today

      (Tampa: 35 million m3/day)

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UV Waterworks: Motivation

  • 1993 “Bengal Cholera” outbreak in India, Bangladesh and Thailand

  • Existing alternatives for water treatment often have significant drawbacks

    • boiling (over biomass cookstove)

    • chlorination

    • reverse osmosis

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UV Waterworks: Design Criteria

  • Energy efficient

  • Low cost

  • Reliable under field conditions

  • No overdose risk

  • Off-the-shelf components

  • Can treat unpressurized water

  • Rapid throughput

  • Low maintenance

  • Simple design/fabricable in developing countries

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UV Waterworks: How It Works

  • Water flows by gravity under a UV lamp for 12 seconds

  • UV radiation kills 99.9999% of bacteria, 99.99% of viruses

  • No change in taste or odor/no chemicals introduced

  • Disinfects 4 gallons (15 liters) per minute

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UV Waterworks: How It Works(continued)

  • Power requirement: 60 watts

  • Disinfects 1,000 liters of water for less than 5 cents (annual cost per person: 14 cents)

  • Unit needs maintenance only once every six months – performed by local technicians

  • Energy consumption 6,000 times less than boiling water over cookstove

  • Units extensively tested, commercially available

  • Portable version developed for disaster-relief

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DOE has a number of technologies and capabilities that would be useful in addressing water quantity and quality issues:

-UV Waterworks unit developed at DOE national

laboratory (LBNL)

- Capacitive Deionization (CDI) process under

development at another DOE laboratory (LLNL)

  • modeling and simulation (using advanced computer capabilities)

    - monitoring, sensors and telemetry for remote monitoring

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HOW CAN THE U.S. DOE HELP?(continued)

  • Characterization of water resources

  • Site remediation, pollution prevention and waste treatment (to be discussed at September meeting of the Roundtable)

  • Application of renewable electric technologies to desalination and water pumping and treatment

  • Planning and management of large projects

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  • Water issues will be a major global concern

    in the 21st century, and a potential source of conflict

  • Addressing water issues requires joint consideration of a broad range of issues – health, agricultural, economic, political and energy

  • Water and energy issues are closely linked

  • Renewable energy is likely to play a major role in addressing water issues, especially in developing countries

  • Where applicable, a systems approach will yield optimum results

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