How to write a scientific paper
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How to Write a Scientific Paper. Hann-Chorng Kuo Department of Urology Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital. Construction of A Scientific Paper. Title page Abstract Manuscript References Figures Tables All must be prepared in double-space with page numbered on the manuscript.

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How to write a scientific paper l.jpg

How to Write a Scientific Paper

Hann-Chorng Kuo

Department of Urology

Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital


Construction of a scientific paper l.jpg
Construction of A Scientific Paper

  • Title page

  • Abstract

  • Manuscript

  • References

  • Figures

  • Tables

  • All must be prepared in double-space with page numbered on the manuscript


Central theme of the paper l.jpg
Central Theme of the Paper

  • What are the purposes of this study?

  • What previous studies already show

  • How to design the study

  • Tool for assessments

  • How to analyze the results

  • How to present the data and discuss them

  • What is the impact of this study


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Originality is the most important

  • Do not follow previous works

  • Make small changes

  • Detailed assessment

  • Large patient scale

  • Long-term follow-up

  • Different statistics

  • Do a randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled study


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Start writing the paper once you have a new idea

  • Introduction – when you are searching previous studies

  • Materials and methods – designing study

  • Results – when you make expected results

  • Discussions – during harvesting the data

  • Try to write a proposal for any study

  • Once you complete the study, the paper had been done


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Reviewer’s recommendation

  • Is this paper significant? New?

  • Scientific quality? superior good fair poor

  • Presentation?

  • Is the title specific and appropriate for literature search retrieval?

  • Is the abstract complete yet succinct?

  • Does the abstract provide details?


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Guidelines for assessing scientific articles

  • Does the introduction explain the topic and cite appropriate previous work?

  • Are the objectives clearly stated in the introduction?

  • Is the study population detailed adequately in the materials section?

  • Are the methods described well enough to reproduce the experiment or investigation?


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Guidelines for assessing scientific articles

  • Can the reader assess the results based on the data provided?

  • Do the data presented supported the author’s conclusions?

  • Have the authors provided the reader with potential problems and limitations of study

  • Are the references complete, accurate and appropriately cited in the text


Abstract l.jpg
Abstract

  • Purposes– point out the key purpose

  • Materials and methods– study designed, main inclusion and exclusion criteria, assessment methods, primary end-point

  • Results – number of subjects, results of primary and secondary end-points

  • Conclusions– significance of results on key purposes

  • Key words


Introduction l.jpg
Introduction

  • Short description of history and disease

  • Clinical relevance of previous works

  • Hypothesis of this study

  • Purposes of the study –why we have to do this study, any clinical implication if the purpose of the study is achieved

  • Design of the study


Materials and methods l.jpg
Materials and methods

  • Number of patients enrolled

  • Inclusion criteria

  • Exclusion criteria

  • IRB and informed consent

  • Assessment methods

  • Primary and secondary end-points

  • Definition of therapeutic results


Results l.jpg
Results

  • Number and demographics of subjects

  • Results of primary end-point

  • Results of secondary end-point

  • Comparative study

  • Adverse effects

  • Tables and figures

  • Kaplan-Meier survival curve


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Discussions

  • The most important findings in study

  • Do not repeat descriptions in Introduction

  • Clinical implication of the results

  • Cite references to back-up your discussion

  • Difference of results of this study from other reported results

  • Do not discuss anything the results did not show


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Conclusions

  • One or two sentences to conclude your study

  • Do not conclude anything your results did not support or show

  • Make a strong conclusion


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References

  • Cite the newest references

  • Cite the references of the possible reviewers

  • Do not cite irrelevant references

  • Too many references is not necessary


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Reviewer’s Comments

  • Comments

  • Accept as is

  • Accept with minor revisions

  • Major revisions

  • Major revisions with low priority

  • Reject


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Reply of Reviewer’s comments

  • A reply with many critiques is better than rejection

  • Reply the comments as soon as possible

  • Make changes according to the reviewers’ comment

  • Make changes and submit to another journal if it is not accepted

  • The prepared paper must be published !!



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