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Outline. 1 Electric Circuits and Electric Current 2 Ohm’s Law and Resistance 3 Series and Parallel Circuits 4 Electric Energy and Power 5 Alternating currents and Household Current. How to Get the Bulb to Light?. How to Get the Bulb to Light?. Electric Current.

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outline
Outline

1 Electric Circuits and Electric Current

2 Ohm’s Law and Resistance

3 Series and Parallel Circuits

4 Electric Energy and Power

5 Alternating currents and Household Current

electric current
Electric Current

The electriccurrent is the amount of charge per unit time that passes through a surface that is perpendicular to the motion of the charges.

The SI unit of electric current is the ampere (A), after the French mathematician André Ampére (1775-1836). 1 A = 1 C/s. Ampere is a large unit for current. In practice milliampere (mA) and microampere (μA) are used.

direction of current flow
Direction of Current Flow

Electric current is a flow of electrons. In a circuit, electrons actually flow through the metal wires.

Conventional electric current is defined using the flow of positive charges.

It is customary to use a conventional current I in the opposite direction to the electron flow.

ohm s law
Ohm’s Law

Georg Simon Ohm (1787-1854), a German physicist, discovered Ohm’s law in 1826.

This is an experimental law, valid for both alternating current (ac) and direct current (dc) circuits.

When you pass an electric current (I) through a resistance (R) there will be a potential difference or voltage (V) created across the resistance.

Ohm’s law gives a relationship between the voltage (V), current (I), and resistance (R) as follows:

V = I R

electromotive force emf
Electromotive Force (emf)

The energy needed to run electrical devices comes from batteries.

Within a battery, a chemical reaction occurs that transfers electrons from one terminal (leaving it positively charged) to another terminal (leaving it negatively charged).

Because of the positive and negative charges on the battery terminals, an electric potential difference exists between them. The maximum potential difference is called the electromotive force* (emf) of the battery.

The electric potential difference is also known as the voltage, V.

The SI unit for voltage is the volt, after Alessandro Volta (1745-1827) who invented the electric battery. 1 volt = 1 J/C.

electrical energy and power
Electrical Energy and Power

Our daily life depends on electrical energy. We use many electrical devices that transform electrical energy into other forms of energy. For example, a light bulb transforms electrical energy into light and heat. Electrical devices have various power requirements. Electrical power, P is defined as the electrical energy transfer per unit time,

electric power
Electric Power:

Since the electrical energy is charge times voltage (QV), the above equation becomes,

Since the current is charge flow per unit time (Q/t), the above equation becomes,

Since V = IR, the above equation can also be written as,

killowatt hour kwh
Killowatt-hour (kWh)

The SI unit of power is watt, after James Watt (1736-1819), who developed steam engines.

Utility companies use the unit kilowatt-hour to measure the electrical energy used by customers. One kilowatt-hour, kWh is the energy consumed for one hour at a power rate of 1 kW.

exercises
Exercises

1. State Ohm’s law in an equation form in terms of voltage and current.

2. Define power in an equation form in terms of voltage and current.

3. When an appliance is plugged in a 120-volt outlet, it draws a current of 8 amperes. Calculate the power of the appliance.

4. If the above appliance is used 10 hours a day for 28 days per month, and if the cost of electricity is 12 cents per kilowatt‑hour, how much does it cost to operate the appliance for a year?

ac adapter
AC adapter

INPUT: AC 120 V, 60 Hz, 15 W

OUTPUT: DC 9V, 1A

alternating voltage
Alternating Voltage

Effective voltage = 115 V

faraday s law of electromagnetic induction
Faraday's Law of Electromagnetic Induction

Michael Faraday found experimentally that the magnitude of the induced emf is proportional to the rate at which the magnetic flux changed. Faraday’s law can be written as,

where N is the number of turns in the loops, A is the area of one loop, ξ is the induced emf, and B┴ is the perpendicular component of the magnetic field.

lenz s law
Lenz’s Law

The SI unit for the induced emf is the volt, V. The minus sign in the above Faraday’s law of induction is due to the fact that the induced emf will always oppose the change. It is also known as the Lenz’s law and it is stated as follows,

The current from the induced emf will produce a magnetic field, which will always oppose the original change in the magnetic flux.