chapter 21 cold war and new nations cold war 1945 89 usa vs ussr n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 21: Cold War and New Nations Cold War, 1945-89: USA vs. USSR PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Chapter 21: Cold War and New Nations Cold War, 1945-89: USA vs. USSR

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 27

Chapter 21: Cold War and New Nations Cold War, 1945-89: USA vs. USSR - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 338 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 21: Cold War and New Nations Cold War, 1945-89: USA vs. USSR. US policy toward world alternates between isolation and assertion of global mission US established Pax Americana after WWII Soviet Union had similar sense of mission tied to belief in spreading communism

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

Chapter 21: Cold War and New Nations Cold War, 1945-89: USA vs. USSR


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 21 cold war and new nations cold war 1945 89 usa vs ussr
Chapter 21: Cold War and New NationsCold War, 1945-89: USA vs. USSR
  • US policy toward world alternates between isolation and assertion of global mission
    • US established Pax Americana after WWII
  • Soviet Union had similar sense of mission tied to belief in spreading communism
    • Third Socialist International (Comintern)
    • Survival in World War II added prestige
  • Post war agreements try to bridge this gap
cold war 1945 89 usa vs ussr
Cold War, 1945-89: USA vs. USSR
  • “Iron Curtain” reality emerges in late 1940s
    • Each sees other’s ideals as cover for aggression
  • Berlin Blockade (1948)
  • Nuclear weaponry a major element in war
  • Space race adds rivalry
  • “Fall” of China adds fear to the US.
    • 1/4 of world “becomes” communist over night
cold war 1945 89 usa vs ussr1
Cold War, 1945-89: USA vs. USSR
  • The Korean War, 1950-53
    • North Korea invaded South Korea (June, 1950)
      • North attack almost succeeded
      • Death toll high for all parties
    • Outcomes
      • War added to American sense of threat
      • Japan experienced prosperity as supplier of material
      • US and Europe split over war aims
      • Started trend of “brinksmanship” in diplomacy
cold war 1945 89 usa vs ussr2
Cold War, 1945-89: USA vs. USSR
  • The Soviet Union After Stalin
    • Nikita Khrushchev, 1953-64
      • Denounced Stalinist policies
      • Openness led to novels of criticism of Russia
      • Revelation of gulags by Solzhenitzyn
      • Continued attempts to catch up with the West technologically
      • Diplomatically aggressive with harsh control of eastern Europe and support for Castro
cold war 1945 89 usa vs ussr3
Cold War, 1945-89: USA vs. USSR
  • The Soviet Union After Stalin [cont.]
    • Leonid Brezhnev, 1964-82
      • Brezhnev Doctrine is response to “Prague Spring”
        • Doctrine claims right to intervene in satellite nations to prevent counter-revolution
      • Unrest in Poland surrounding Solidarity movement and election of Pole as Roman Catholic Pope leads to creation of martial law
      • Involvement in Afghanistan becomes Russia’s Vietnam
cold war 1945 89 usa vs ussr4
Cold War, 1945-89: USA vs. USSR
  • The American Military-Industrial Complex
    • President Eisenhower warned of the threat of the military-industrial complex to peace in 1961
    • Cold War involved client states & proxy wars
    • Economic assistance was another aspect of the effort to win friends with monetary assistance
      • Some nations drew assistance from both sides
cold war 1945 89 usa vs ussr5
Cold War, 1945-89: USA vs. USSR
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis
    • Fidel Castro took control of Cuba in 1959
    • Initial success in social programs
    • Failed Bay of Pigs invasion moved Cuba toward the Soviet Union
    • Russian nuclear missiles placed in Cuba to protect it from invasion
    • Nuclear war averted in Missile Crisis (1962)
cold war and emergence of new nations
Cold War and Emergence of New Nations
  • Decolonization a product of Depression and world wars, 1914-45
    • West no longer a clearly superior culture
    • World Wars emphasized self government
    • US & USSR promoted independence
  • British & French Middle East mandates were first to gain freedom
cold war and emergence of new nations1
Cold War and Emergence of New Nations
  • Independence of India (1947)
  • Israeli statehood (1948)
  • China to communists (1949)
  • Independence of Indonesia (1949)
  • War in Vietnam when France is reluctant to withdraw.
    • French withdraw from Vietnam in 1954
cold war and emergence of new nations2
Cold War and Emergence of New Nations
  • Africa
    • Ghana 1st black African nation to gain freedom
  • Egypt
    • Coup claims control of Suez Canal (1956)
    • Joint British-French attack to reverse this action
    • US demands attack end
    • Nasser brings in Soviet advisors to build dam
    • Sadat (1970) expels Russians from Egypt
cold war and emergence of new nations3
Cold War and Emergence of New Nations
  • Congo
    • Cruel Belgian rule ends with elections in 1957 and move toward independence
    • Lumumba elected Prime Minister in 1960 but army overthrows his government
    • Three-sided Civil War ends with victory for Joseph Mobutu (dictator Mobutu Sese Seko)
    • War showed dilemma of resource rich area in midst of Cold War
cold war and emergence of new nations4
Cold War and Emergence of New Nations
  • Algeria
    • Independence through Civil War
      • Algeria legally an integral part of France
      • Algerians of European origin control wealth
      • War from mid-1950s led by NLN
      • DeGaulle and new French constitution open the door to Algerian independence
    • Oil revenues finance economic and educational development
cold war and emergence of new nations5
Cold War and Emergence of New Nations
  • Mozambique, Angola, & Guinea
    • Portugal resists loss of colonial power
    • Calls these colonies “overseas provinces)
    • Revolts in all three by 1961
    • Military coup in Portugal creates government that grants independence to these colonies
    • Even among colonizers, colonialism no longer considered an appropriate relationship
emergence of the third world
Emergence of the Third World
  • Term emerged as “third alternative” in Cold War conflict between US & USSR
  • Made collective entry into international affairs at Bandung conference (1955)
    • 1st presentation of non-Western views
  • Non-aligned, these countries form regional organizations to promote their interests
    • Include OPEC, OAU, OAS
emergence of the third world1
Emergence of the Third World
  • Client States and Proxy Wars
    • US & USSR seek client state relations with resource-rich Third World nations
    • Warfare for control of resources by Cold War nations involved “proxy wars”
    • Communist takeover of China saw US refuse diplomatic recognition of the nation, outbreak of Korean War, and deterioration of China’s relationship with Russia
emergence of the third world2
Emergence of the Third World
  • Latin America
    • Nicaragua
      • US involvement from support of 1909 coup and continuous stationing of troops to 1933
      • Guerilla war led by Sandino ended in 1934 with start of Somoza government
      • Sandinista success in 1979 gains support of Carter administration but Pres. Reagan pursues overthrow Nicaraguan government with covert financing
      • 1990 sees end of war
emergence of the third world3
Emergence of the Third World
  • Latin America [cont.]
    • Guatemala
      • U.S. sponsors ouster of President Arbenz
        • Had confiscated land from United Fruit Company with promise of compensation, built a highway to break the fruit company’s monopoly on transportation and built a hydroelectric plant for energy independence
      • Assassination of US sponsored successor leads to decades of civil war
      • US apology for role in “banana republic” in 1999
emergence of the third world4
Emergence of the Third World
  • Latin America [cont.]
    • Panama
      • Established by coup in 1903 with US support in return for right to build Panama Canal
    • Chile
      • Socialist Salvador Allende elected leader (1970)
      • Land reform and nationalization of copper resources
      • Allende overthrown and killed with CIA support
      • Pinochet government is successor by force until 1988
emergence of the third world5
Emergence of the Third World
  • Iran
    • US/Britain oppose Iranian control of oil (1951)
      • Placed compliant Shah of Iran fully in charge
    • Forced modernization plan alienates many
      • Religious opposition led by Ayatollah Khomeni
    • Fall of Shah placed militant Shiites in power
      • Seizure of 52 Americans at embassy
      • Numerous actions against neighboring states
      • Restrictions on women
terrorism
Terrorism
  • Terrorism is tactic of the weak
  • Is used by some states as well as outsider movements
  • Israel is a frequent target of terror
  • Can boomerang in the sense that those attacked can resolve to resist terror demands
in pursuit of peace
In Pursuit of Peace
  • Mutually Assured Destruction prevented attacks
  • United Nations: Growth & New Missions
    • Forum for nations in General Assembly
    • Peacekeeping a major role for UN
    • Promotion of general welfare around the world
    • Work to improve global economy
in pursuit of peace1
In Pursuit of Peace
  • Demographics
    • Fear of “population bomb” reduced by declining birth rates and decrease in death rates
    • Green Revolution added to food supply
      • Fear that revolution would make the rich richer
    • Population growth uneven--growing population in cities produces “slums of hope” and “slums of despair”
in pursuit of peace2
In Pursuit of Peace
  • Economic Growth
    • Western Europe
      • Post-war “economic miracles”
        • European Coal and Steel Community (1952)
        • European Economic Community (1957)
        • Euratom
        • Common Agricultural Policy (1962)
        • Unified western European economy (1965)
      • West German economy fastest growing in Europe
in pursuit of peace3
In Pursuit of Peace
  • Economic Growth [cont.]
    • Japan
      • US occupation laid basis for Japanese recovery
      • Re-entry to family of nations in three stages
        • Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development
        • Bullet train
        • Hosted Summer Olympics (1964)
      • Japan’s policy combined free enterprise & planning
      • 1973 OPEC oil embargo shocked world economy
        • Japanese survival tied to conservation measures
in pursuit of peace4
In Pursuit of Peace
  • International Organization
    • Bretton Woods Agreements (1944) produced
      • International Monetary Fund
      • World Bank
      • General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade
    • OPEC (1960)
      • Used economic clout to promote oil embargo to reduce willingness of US to support Israel
ngos and transnationals
NGOs and Transnationals
  • Term “Non-governmental organizations” does not usually include private businesses
  • Can be national or transnational in scope
  • Have a wide variety of purposes
    • World Wildlife fund
    • Amnesty International
    • Oxfam
    • Solidarity
legacies of the cold war
Legacies of the Cold War
  • Twentieth century has developed healthy skepticism about past changes
  • Winners include newly freed people
  • Losers are those who continue to live in poverty
  • Postwar years favored optimists over pessimists