The Cold War & The Space Race. 1945- 1991. The End of WWII. Before his death, Roosevelt had set the groundwork for an international political organization. -> On April 25, 1945, that plan came into action
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-> On April 25, 1945, that plan came into action
-> Representatives from 50 countries came to San Francisco to officially organize the United Nations
-> Britain, France, the United States and the Soviet Union created the International Military Tribunal
-> At the Nuremberg Trials, the IMT tried German leaders suspected of committing war crimes
-> Similar trials were held in Tokyo for the leaders of wartime Japan.
-> However, the Allies did not put Emperor Hirohito on trial.
Most of the Allies blamed Hirohito for Japan’s actions during the war. Why wasn’t he put on trial?
-> There was a difference in ideology
-> The USSR was Communist
-> The United States was Democratic and capitalist
-> As WWII ended, the US and USSR had different goals. The USSR was concerned about security.
-> Soviet leaders were also Communist
-> The United States’ concern was more economic
-> Many believed that the global Depression had caused WWII
-> Because of this, the USA promoted economic growth, world trade, and free enterprise
-> February 1945 – WWII is almost over. The Big Three meet at Yalta, a Soviet resort on the Black Sea.
-> Declaration of Liberated Europe
-> Dividing Germany
-> In 1945, there were two competing Polish governments – one Communist, one not.
-> Compromise: the Communist gov’t would stay in place, but some of the old Polish officials would be put in gov’t positions.
-> The Declaration of Liberated Europe
-> Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin agreed to divide Germany into four zones.
-> Stalin demanded Germany pay reparations for the war damage
-> Roosevelt agreed, but suggested:
-> President Truman met with Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov, and demanded Stalin allow the Poles to have free elections.
-> This meeting marked an important shift in US- Soviet relations. It showed the US would stand up to the Soviets.
-> In July 1945, with the US still at war with Japan, Truman met with Stalin at Potsdam, in occupied Germany.
-> Truman found a solution:
-> Stalin was against this idea
-> Soon after, Romania, Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia all established Communist governments.
->The Communist countries in Eastern Europe were called satellite nations.
-> They were not under direct Soviet control, but they were pressured to be Communist, andremain friendly to the USSR.
“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”
-> The United States, Great Britain, and France announced they were merging their zonesinto one.
-> East Germanywas controlled by the Soviet Union.
-> Over the next few years, West Germany gained more and more independence.
-> West Germany was not allowed a military
-> The U.S.; Britain; and France maintained a presence in West Germany
-> Otherwise, however, the West Germans had a lot of freedom.
-> June: 1948 – Soviet troops cut all road and rail traffic into West Berlin.
-> The Soviets created a blockade – it was designed to put West Berlin under Soviet control.
-> Truman ordered the Berlin airlift to begin.
-> For 11 months, cargo planes supplied the Berliners with food, medicine, and coal.
-> Stalin (USSR) finally lifted the blockade on May 12, 1949.
-> April 1949: NATO is created
-> The NATO nations agreed to come to the aid of any country that was attacked.
-> Eventually, the NATO members allowed West Germany to join.
-> In response, the Soviet leaders would createtheir own alliances – the Warsaw Pact
-> Communists led by Mao Zedong
-> Nationalists led by Chiang Kai-shek
-> By October, 1949, China was a Communist country, led by Mao Zedong.
-> US response to Communism in China:
-> At the end of WWII, the USA and USSR had invaded Korea.
-> Once WWII was over, this became a problem – the USSR supported the Communist government of North Korea. The USA supported the democratic South Korea.
-> This led to the Korean War (1950-1953)
-> Gouzenko carried with him documents that revealed a massive Soviet effort to infiltrate government agencies in Canada and the United States.
-> This case stunned and terrified Americans – it implied that there could be Soviet spiesanywhere.
-> This period of time is called the Red Scare - fear that the Soviets “Reds” had infiltrated parts of American society.
-> Americans feared subversion.
-> J. Edgar Hoover urged HUAC to hold public hearings for suspected Communists.
-> In 1950, the FBI was trying to find out how the USSR gained atomic bomb technology.
-> The FBI then arrested Julius and Ethel Rosenberg – a New York couple.
-> The Rosenbergs claimed innocence, but were sentenced to death for espionage.
-> Messages decoded by Project Verona revealed extensive Soviet espionage.
-> Project Verona was able to crack one of the Soviet spy codes, and intercept messages to Moscow.
-> The Taft-Hartley Act required leaders of labor unions to take oaths that they were not Communists.
-> HUAC – (House Un-American Activities Committee) even put celebrities on trial.
-> The FBI and HUAC believed the film industrywas a powerful force, which could changepeoples opinions.
“While I cannot take the time to name all the men in the State Department who have been named as members of the Communist party, and members of a spy ring, I have here in my hand a list of 205 that were known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party, and who nevertheless are still working and shaping the policy of the State Department.”
-> As a senator, McCarthy claimed that Communists were a danger at home and abroad.
-> He distributed a booklet called “The Party of Betrayal” which accused the Democratic Party of protecting Communists.
-> McCarthy gained political power and support – so many people were afraid of Communism,
-> In 1950, Congress passed the McCarran Act.
-> 1952: Republicans control Congress.
-> McCarthy used his power to force government officials to testify about alleged Communist influences.
-> McCarthy turned the investigation into a “witch hunt”
-> This paranoia of Communism, and persecution with little evidence became known as McCarthyism.
-> McCarthy eventually lost popularity when he started looking for Soviet spies in the U.S. Army.
-> The televised Army-McCarthy Hearings (1954) showed McCarthy bullying witnesses
-> These hearings made McCarthy LOSE support.
-> In 1954, the Senate passed a vote of censure (formaldisproval) against McCarthy.
Homework Assignment: Read the article about “Life during the Cold War”
Answer the questions.
-> Eisenhower was popular because of his success during WWII.
-> Eisenhower believed that the key to winning the cold war was two-fold.
-> He focused instead on developing nuclear technology.
-> Eisenhower developed a “New Look” in defense policy.
-> Eisenhower also increased America’s nuclear arsenal from 1,000 bombs (1953) to 18,000 (1961)
-> October 4, 1957 – the Soviets launched Sputnik
-> 1958: Congress creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
- > Not everyone approved of Eisenhower’s massive retaliation policy.
-> Critics called it brinkmanship
-> Egypt:Americans wanted to gain support in the Middle East. The USA offered to help Egyptians build a dam on the Nile river. This led to the Suez Crisis.
-> Kennedy had lofty goals for his presidency. He called his agenda the New Frontier.
-> Kennedy was able to improve the nation’s economy.
Baker v. Carr (1962) and Reynolds v. Simms (1964)Ruled on the constitutionality of how districts were represented in Congress. Before this, the lines hadn’t been redrawn when people moved to the suburbs, so some areas didn’t have enough representatives in Congress.
Brown v. Board of Education – 1954
Segregation in public schools is unconstitutional
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States - 1964Desegregation of public accommodations, established in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is legal
Lowing v. Virginia - 1967States may not ban interracial marriage
Mapp v. Ohio – 1961
Unlawfully seized evidence is inadmissible in court
Gideon v. Wainwright - 1963Suspects are entitled to a court-appointed attorney if they cannot afford one
Escobedo v. Illinois – 1964
Accused has the right to an attorney during police questioning
Miranda v. Arizona - 1966
Police must inform suspects of their rights during arrest process
Engel v. Vitale - 1962
Nondenominational prayer in school banned
Abington School District v. Schempp - 1963
Daily Bible reading in school banned
New York Times v. Sullivan - 1964
Celebrities may sue the media for libel only in certain circumstances (celebrity must prove malicious intent)
Griswold v. Connecticut - 1965
Prohibiting the sale of birth control violates right to privacy
-> USA would remove its missiles from Turkey
-> USSR would remove its missiles from Cuba
-> The USA would not invade Cuba
Brown v. Board of Education: The Brown family sued the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Supreme Court rules that separate- but-equal is unconstitutional when applied to schools.
Emmitt Till was a 14 year old African American boy. He was beaten, shot, and his body was thrown in a river. His crime: talking to a white woman. His murderers were found not guilty.
Nearly the entire African-American population of Montgomery, Alabama, refused to take the busses for 11 months, until they were de-segregated. Began with Rosa Parks’ case.
Martin Luther King Jr. was a young minister who helped to rally people during the Bus Boycott, and became a major leader during the Civil Rights movement.
“The heart of the question is whether…we are going to treat our fellow Americans as we want to be treated. If an American, because his skin is dark, cannot eat lunch in a restaurant…if he cannot send his children to the best public school available, if he cannot vote for the public officials who will represent him…then who among us would be content to have the color of his skin changed and stand in his place?” – Kennedy’s White House Address
-> King and A. Philip Randolph gathered more than 200,000 people and led them in a March on Washington.
-> When the group gathered around the Lincoln Memorial, King gave his now-famous “I have a dream” speech.
->The Civil Rights Act of 1964:
-> Many called for black power
-> Malcolm X became a symbol of the Black Power movement.
-> Malcolm X became a major leader of the Black Power movement.
-> He joined the Nation of Islam (commonly called Black Muslims)
-> Black Muslims believed that African Americans should separate themselves from whites completely.
-> Malcolm X eventually broke with the Black Muslims.
-> Ultimately, three members of the group assassinated him while he was giving a speech.
-> The Black Panthers were created in 1966.
-> The Black Panthers were militant.
-> On the evening of April 4, 1968, while standing on his hotel room balcony, King was assassinated by a sniper.
-> North Vietnam
-> South Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh
Ngo Dinh Diem
-> Vietcong – a new guerilla army, fighting for North Vietnam
-> Many Vietnamese citizens oppose Diem’s government, and support Minh.
-> Diem looked to the United States for help
-> November 1, 1963: Diem is killed by several of his own generals
-> Gulf of Tonkin Resolution:
-> Authorized the president to “take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against he forces of the United States…”
-> This ultimately gave all war power to the President
-> The Vietcong used guerilla warfare, ambushes, and booby traps.
-> American strategy:
-> The Tet Offensive
-> Massacre at My Lai
-> American Troops invade Cambodia
-> By 1971, polls showed the American people wanted out of the Vietnam War.
-> January 27, 1973: The warring sides sign an agreement “ending the war and restoring the peace in Vietnam”.
-> By April 30th, 1975 Vietnam was re-unified, under a Communist government.
-> The Vietnam War – lasting 8 years – becomes the longest war in American history.
-> Nixon’s platform: Restoring law and order, and traditional values at home. Reduce Cold War tensions abroad.
-> Nixon’s main goal at first was to deal with the rise of crime in the United States.
-> Nixon’s administration supported prosecution of draft dodgers, radical students, deserters, and street criminals.
-> Nixon took a great interest in foreign policy.
-> He appointed Henry Kissinger to national security adviser, who played a huge role in shaping foreign policy.
-> Nixon and Kissinger also believed in a practical approach toward Communism – rather than a long war of ideologies, both men favored engagement and negotiation.
-> Nixon and Kissinger created a new approach- détente: a relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the USSR and China.
“We must understand that détente is not a love fest. It is an understanding between nations that have opposite purposes, but which share common interests, including the avoidance of nuclear war. Such an understanding can work…” – Nixon, describing the proposed détente
-> April 1971: the American ping-pong team is invited to China for friendly competition - the first Americans to enter China since the Communist takeover in 1949.
-> February, 1972: Nixon visits China, agreeing to establish “more normal” relations between the two countries.
-> May, 1972 – Nixon flies to Moscow for a two- week long American-Soviet summit.
-> During the meeting, Nixon and Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev signed the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) – a plan to limit nuclear arms.
-> The two leaders also agreed to increase trade, and trade scientific information.
-> In the early hours of June 17, 1972, five Nixon supporters broke into the Democratic party’s office at the Watergate complex in Washington DC. Their goal was to plant wiretaps, and find sensitive campaign information. They were caught by police.
-> Ultimately, Nixon himself was implicated. The court claimed he ordered the break in of the Democratic offices, and then tried to cover it up.
-> Nixon refused to give the tapes to the court.
-> He claimed executive privilege – claiming that any conversations in the White House should be kept confidential as a matter of national security.
-> The House Judiciary Committee voted to impeachNixon, saying he was obstructing justice.
-> However, one of the unedited tapes revealed Nixon’s involvement in the cover-up.
-> On August 9th, 1973, Nixon resigned.
The Cold War would technically continue until 1991, but now Gerald Ford had to manage the country.
Read the information about the End of the Cold War, and answer the following:
Who won the Cold War? Why/How?