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The Cold War & The Space Race. 1945- 1991. The End of WWII. Before his death, Roosevelt had set the groundwork for an international political organization. -> On April 25, 1945, that plan came into action

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the end of wwii
The End of WWII
  • Before his death, Roosevelt had set the groundwork for an international political organization.

-> On April 25, 1945, that plan came into action

-> Representatives from 50 countries came to San Francisco to officially organize the United Nations

  • The representatives designed the UN Charter
    • The charter was the “Constitution” of the UN
  • A Security Council was also created – responsible for international peace and security
the end of wwii1
The End of WWII
  • The Allies also wanted to punish Germany for WWII

-> Britain, France, the United States and the Soviet Union created the International Military Tribunal

-> At the Nuremberg Trials, the IMT tried German leaders suspected of committing war crimes

    • War crimes are crimes against humanity that go ‘above and beyond’ what is appropriate in a time of war
  • Twenty-two Nazi leaders were tried – three were acquitted, 7 went to prison,the other 12 were hanged.
the end of wwii2
The End of WWII
  • Lower ranking Nazi officials were also put on trial at Nuremberg. This led to an additional 24 executions and 107 sent to prison.

-> Similar trials were held in Tokyo for the leaders of wartime Japan.

  • The Allies tried 25 Japanese leaders with war crimes.

-> However, the Allies did not put Emperor Hirohito on trial.

Most of the Allies blamed Hirohito for Japan’s actions during the war. Why wasn’t he put on trial?

roots of the cold war
Roots of the Cold War
  • Even before WWII ended, the wartime alliance between the US and USSR was strained.

-> There was a difference in ideology

    • > Ideology – a system of social beliefs and values

-> The USSR was Communist

-> The United States was Democratic and capitalist

  • When the two nations had a common enemy, things were okay, but with the end of WWII these differences began causing problems
soviet security concerns
Soviet Security Concerns

-> As WWII ended, the US and USSR had different goals. The USSR was concerned about security.

  • Germany had invaded the USSR twice in less than 30 years
  • > The Soviets wanted to keep Germany weak
  • > They also wanted to make sure the countries between Germany and the USSR were under Soviet control.

-> Soviet leaders were also Communist

  • They believed communism was a superior economic system, and the USSR should encourage communism in other countries
  • Many Soviet leaders also believed that capitalist countries would try to destroy communism.
  • This made them suspicious of capitalist countries
american economic concerns
American Economic Concerns

-> The United States’ concern was more economic

-> Many believed that the global Depression had caused WWII

  • American advisers thought that the Depression had gotten so bad because countries had cut down on trade

-> Because of this, the USA promoted economic growth, world trade, and free enterprise

  • These capitalist ideas made the USA suspicious of communist countries.
the yalta conference
The Yalta Conference

-> February 1945 – WWII is almost over. The Big Three meet at Yalta, a Soviet resort on the Black Sea.

  • The three main issues discussed would later come into play during the Cold War:

-> Poland

-> Declaration of Liberated Europe

-> Dividing Germany

the yalta conference1

Plans for Poland

The Yalta Conference
  • After the German invasion of Poland, most of the Polish leaders had fled to Britain
  • In 1944, when the Soviets liberated Poland, they encouraged Polish Communists to set up a new government

-> In 1945, there were two competing Polish governments – one Communist, one not.

    • Stalin argued that the Polish gov’t needed to be friendly to the USSR, and should be Communist
    • Churchill and Roosevelt said that a free Poland was what the Allies had been fighting for

-> Compromise: the Communist gov’t would stay in place, but some of the old Polish officials would be put in gov’t positions.

the yalta conference2

Declaration of Liberated Europe

The Yalta Conference
  • After reaching a decision about Poland, the Big Three created a Declaration

-> The Declaration of Liberated Europe

    • > Asserted the “right of all people to choose the form of government under which they will live”
    • The Allies agreed the people of Europe would be allowed to hold elections as needed, and that the Allies would help them set up temporary governments.
the yalta conference3

Dividing Germany

The Yalta Conference

-> Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin agreed to divide Germany into four zones.

  • Each zone would be controlled by one of the Allies – France, Britain, the USA and the USSR
  • Berlin (the capital) would also be divided into four zones, even though the city was in the Soviet zone of Germany.
the yalta conference4

Dividing Germany

The Yalta Conference
  • Stalin also wanted to weaken Germany economically.

-> Stalin demanded Germany pay reparations for the war damage

-> Roosevelt agreed, but suggested:

    • >Reparations be based on what Germany could pay
    • > They could be paid with trade goods
  • Further, the Allies agreed to remove industrial machinery, railroad cars, and other equipment from Germany.
  • Though the Allies reached an agreement, tensions over reparations would become one of the major causes of the Cold War.
rising tensions
Rising Tensions
  • Two weeks after the Yalta conference, the USSR pressured the King of Romania into appointing a Communist government.
  • Soon after, the Soviets refused to allow more than 3 non-Communists in the Polish government.
    • Roosevelt said this was “unacceptable”, but died before he could take action.

-> President Truman met with Soviet Foreign Minister Molotov, and demanded Stalin allow the Poles to have free elections.

-> This meeting marked an important shift in US- Soviet relations. It showed the US would stand up to the Soviets.

potsdam conference
Potsdam Conference

-> In July 1945, with the US still at war with Japan, Truman met with Stalin at Potsdam, in occupied Germany.

  • The economy of the USSR had suffered during the war – Stalin wanted Germanyto pay reparations.
  • Truman thought that, if Germany’s economywasn’t allowed to recover, it might lead to a Depression, or a third World War.
potsdam conference1
Potsdam Conference

-> Truman found a solution:

  • >The Soviets would take reparations from only the Soviet-controlled zone of Germany
  • Those areas controlled by France, Britain, and the USA would be able to recover.

-> Stalin was against this idea

  • > The Soviet zone of Germany was mostly agricultural
  • > Stalin thought the USA was trying to intimidate him – Truman told him about the A-Bomb
  • Even though he didn’t like it, Stalin agreed. It was the only way the USSR could get any reparations.
potsdam conference2
Potsdam Conference
  • Although Truman won on the reparations issue, the Soviets refused to negotiate on other points.
  • The Soviets refused to commit to uphold the Declaration of Liberated Europe
    • >The presence of the Soviet army in Eastern Europe meant pro-Soviet Communist governments would be established.

-> Soon after, Romania, Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia all established Communist governments.

the iron curtain
The Iron Curtain

->The Communist countries in Eastern Europe were called satellite nations.

-> They were not under direct Soviet control, but they were pressured to be Communist, andremain friendly to the USSR.

  • Churchill watched this Communist takeover in Eastern Europe, and said:

“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent.”

american policies
American Policies
  • Your assignment for this period…
    • Read the article about “American Policies toward Communism”
    • Fill out the accompanying chart. You will be filling out information about:
      • Stalin, Truman, Kennan, Marshall and Vandeburg
      • The Long Telegram
      • Truman Doctrine
      • Marshall Plan
      • North Atlantic Treaty
  • You should be able to finish this in class today! You must work solo.
west germany
West Germany
  • By 1948, US officials realized that the USSR was trying to undermine the German economy.

-> The United States, Great Britain, and France announced they were merging their zonesinto one.

    • They called the new zone Federal Republic of Germany, however, everyone called it West Germany.
    • > The new merged zone became West Germany.

-> East Germanywas controlled by the Soviet Union.

east v west germany
East v. West Germany
  • West Germany’s economy was completely separate from East Germany’s.

-> Over the next few years, West Germany gained more and more independence.

-> West Germany was not allowed a military

-> The U.S.; Britain; and France maintained a presence in West Germany

-> Otherwise, however, the West Germans had a lot of freedom.

  • East Germany was another story.
    • East Germany was controlled by the USSR, and Germany’s capital, Berlin, was in East Germany.
berlin blockade
Berlin Blockade

-> June: 1948 – Soviet troops cut all road and rail traffic into West Berlin.

    • Like Germany itself, Berlinwas now in two pieces – East Berlin was controlledby the Soviets, West by the USA

-> The Soviets created a blockade – it was designed to put West Berlin under Soviet control.

  • The challenge was – how could the US and their allies keep West Berlin alive without provoking war with the USSR?
the berlin airlift
The Berlin Airlift
  • The USA needed to help West Berlin without invading Soviet-Controlled Germany.

-> Truman ordered the Berlin airlift to begin.

-> For 11 months, cargo planes supplied the Berliners with food, medicine, and coal.

  • The airlift continued through the spring of 1949, bringing in over 2 million tons of supplies.

-> Stalin (USSR) finally lifted the blockade on May 12, 1949.

slide23
NATO
  • After the Soviets began the Berlin blockade, the US people wanted to create a military alliance with Western Europe.

-> April 1949: NATO is created

    • > NATO stands for: North Atlantic Treaty Organization

-> The NATO nations agreed to come to the aid of any country that was attacked.

    • NATO originally included 12 countries – the US, Canada, Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Denmark, Portugal, the Netherlands, Norway, Luxembourg and Iceland.

-> Eventually, the NATO members allowed West Germany to join.

-> In response, the Soviet leaders would createtheir own alliances – the Warsaw Pact

cold war in china
Cold War in China
  • Communist forces had been fighting to overthrow the Nationalist gov’t of China since the 1920s.

-> Communists led by Mao Zedong

-> Nationalists led by Chiang Kai-shek

    • The United States wanted to prevent a Communist revolution, and sent the Nationalist gov’t $2 billion.
  • By 1949, the Communists had gained support and captured Beijing.

-> By October, 1949, China was a Communist country, led by Mao Zedong.

cold war in china1
Cold War in China
  • 1950 – China signs a treaty of friendship and alliance with the Soviet Union.
  • Soon after, the USSR announced that it had atomic weapons
  • This leads to a growing fear of Communism, not just in Europe, but on a global scale.
cold war in china2
Cold War in China

-> US response to Communism in China:

    • > Only supports Nationalist government (now isolated to Taiwan)
    • > Encourages the recovery of Japan (because the US needs an ally in Asia)
  • The USA was worried that, if China became Communist, there would be a domino effect and other countries would soon follow.
the korean war
The Korean War

-> At the end of WWII, the USA and USSR had invaded Korea.

  • In order to drive Japanese troops out of Korea, the Allies divided the country.
  • The USA would help the south, and the USSR would help the North.

-> Once WWII was over, this became a problem – the USSR supported the Communist government of North Korea. The USA supported the democratic South Korea.

-> This led to the Korean War (1950-1953)

the korean war1
The Korean War
  • Now: Korean War Video
  • Homework: Korean War reading and response
  • Diving Deeper: Research US-North Korean relations today. We will create a whole-class graphic organizer next class.
the red scare
The Red Scare
  • In September, 1945, a clerk named Igor Gouzenko walked out of the Soviet Embassy in Ottowa, Canada and defected.
    • Defecting: Changing loyalty from one country to another

-> Gouzenko carried with him documents that revealed a massive Soviet effort to infiltrate government agencies in Canada and the United States.

  • These documents also showed the Soviets were trying to find out more information about the US atomic bomb.

-> This case stunned and terrified Americans – it implied that there could be Soviet spiesanywhere.

the red scare1
The Red Scare
  • American fear of Soviet influence escalated.

-> This period of time is called the Red Scare - fear that the Soviets “Reds” had infiltrated parts of American society.

-> Americans feared subversion.

    • >Subversion: the effort to secretlyweaken a society and overthrow its government.
  • In early 1947, just nine days after his speech announcing the Truman Doctrine, President Truman made another speech.
  • The president established a loyalty review program to screen for Communists.
the red scare2
The Red Scare
  • Between 1947 and 1951, over 6 million federal employees were screened for loyalty.
  • Things that could throw your loyalty into question:
    • Reading certain books
    • Belonging to ‘liberal’ groups
    • Traveling overseas
    • Watching foreign films
  • J. Edgar Hoover – director of the FBI – was not satisfied. He went to HUAC to discuss options.
    • > HUAC – House Un-American Activities Committee

-> J. Edgar Hoover urged HUAC to hold public hearings for suspected Communists.

  • Hoover aimed to expose Communists and “Communist sympathizers”
  • The FBI sent agents to infiltrate suspected groups, and began wiretapping telephones.
the red scare3

The Rosenbergs

The Red Scare

-> In 1950, the FBI was trying to find out how the USSR gained atomic bomb technology.

  • Many did not believe the USSR could have come up with the technology on their own – they suspected American Communists.
  • The hunt led to Klaus Fuchs, a British scientist.
    • Fuchs admitted sending info to the USSR, claiming it came from American Communists

-> The FBI then arrested Julius and Ethel Rosenberg – a New York couple.

    • > The Rosenbergs were members of the Communist Party. The governmentcharged them with heading a Soviet spy ring.

-> The Rosenbergs claimed innocence, but were sentenced to death for espionage.

the red scare4
The Red Scare
  • The guilt or innocence of people like the Rosenbergs was hotly debated.
    • Many Americans thought that the Rosenbergs and others had been falsely accused.
  • However, there was solid evidence of Soviet espionage as well.

-> Messages decoded by Project Verona revealed extensive Soviet espionage.

-> Project Verona was able to crack one of the Soviet spy codes, and intercept messages to Moscow.

the red scare spreads
The Red Scare Spreads
  • Following the example set by the government, the Red Scare spread even further.
  • Universities, businesses, even churches began searching to find Communists.
    • The University of California required 11,000 faculty members to take loyalty oaths, and fired 157 when they refused to.

-> The Taft-Hartley Act required leaders of labor unions to take oaths that they were not Communists.

  • All over the United States, businesses aimed to purge Communists.
hollywood on trial
Hollywood on Trial

-> HUAC – (House Un-American Activities Committee) even put celebrities on trial.

-> The FBI and HUAC believed the film industrywas a powerful force, which could changepeoples opinions.

  • Actors, producers, writers were all interviewed to see if they had Communist tendencies.
  • Those who were suspected Communists were put on Blacklists and would not be hired.
  • People in the industry could be blacklisted for things as small as knowing a Communist, or for criticizing HUAC.
mccarthyism
McCarthyism

“While I cannot take the time to name all the men in the State Department who have been named as members of the Communist party, and members of a spy ring, I have here in my hand a list of 205 that were known to the Secretary of State as being members of the Communist Party, and who nevertheless are still working and shaping the policy of the State Department.”

  • In February 1950, Wisconsin SenatorJoseph McCarthy made a speech thatincluded the following:
  • Three Minute Mini Essay - Imagine you are in the crowd, and you hear this statement. How would you feel? How would you respond?
mccarthyism1
McCarthyism
  • The day after McCarthy made his speech the Associated Press had picked up the statement. By the time McCarthy’s plane landed in Denver, he was swamped by reporters, asking to see the list of Communists.
  • McCarthy said it was in his bag, but ultimately never produced it.
  • However, this didn’t stop him from making charges against “Communists” in the U.S. government.
  • McCarthy had won his election to Senator based in part on accusing his opponent of being “Communistically inclined”
mccarthyism2
McCarthyism

-> As a senator, McCarthy claimed that Communists were a danger at home and abroad.

-> He distributed a booklet called “The Party of Betrayal” which accused the Democratic Party of protecting Communists.

  • Some of McCarthy’s targets included the Secretary of State Dean Acheson and George C. Marshall (author of the Marshall Plan).

-> McCarthy gained political power and support – so many people were afraid of Communism,

mccarthyism3
McCarthyism
  • The US Congress was also afraid of Communism.

-> In 1950, Congress passed the McCarran Act.

    • > The McCarran Act made it illegal to “combine, conspire or agree with any other person to perform any act which would…contribute to…the establishment of a totalitarian government.”
      • The McCarran Act targeted Communist Party and “Communist-front” organizations, such as labor unions.
    • > It also allowed the arrest and detention of suspected Communists and sympathizers.
  • Truman knew that the Act violated the First Amendment and vetoed it.
  • However, Congress passed the law anyway, with a 2/3rds vote.
mccarthyism4
McCarthyism

-> 1952: Republicans control Congress.

  • Joe McCarthy is now chairman of the Senate subcommittee on investigations.

-> McCarthy used his power to force government officials to testify about alleged Communist influences.

-> McCarthy turned the investigation into a “witch hunt”

    • McCarthy’s searches were based on flimsy evidence and irrational fears. People were also afraid to question McCarthy – for fear they’d be accused of being Communists themselves.

-> This paranoia of Communism, and persecution with little evidence became known as McCarthyism.

mccarthyism5
McCarthyism

-> McCarthy eventually lost popularity when he started looking for Soviet spies in the U.S. Army.

    • The Army conducted its own internal investigation – found no spies or espionage.
    • McCarthy didn’t accept this answer, and took the investigation on TV.

-> The televised Army-McCarthy Hearings (1954) showed McCarthy bullying witnesses

-> These hearings made McCarthy LOSE support.

    • His opponent, army lawyer Joseph Welch said, “Have you no sense of decency?” This line was repeated in newspaper headlines.

-> In 1954, the Senate passed a vote of censure (formaldisproval) against McCarthy.

  • McCarthy faded from public view, and died in 1957.
mccarthyism6
McCarthyism

Homework Assignment: Read the article about “Life during the Cold War”

Answer the questions.

fallout shelter project

In Class Mini Project

Fallout Shelter Project
  • In-Class Mini Project – Fallout Shelter!
  • Make groups of 3 or 4. You and your group-mates are members of a government agency.
  • The USSR has fired nuclearweapons. However, there is an issue with one of the fallout shelters – there are 10 people, but only room for 6.
  • You and your group must decide which 6 people you will allow in the shelter.
  • You have 30 minutes, then a member of your group must present, and explain your group’s decision.
eisenhower
Eisenhower
  • By the end of 1952, many Americans thought that Truman’s foreign policy wasn’t working.
    • The Soviet Union had gotten the A-Bomb, and communism had spread through Eastern Europe and into Asia. Also, many blamed Truman for getting the U.S. involved in Korea – a war that ended in stalemate.
  • Truman decided not to run for President again.
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower (famed general of WWII) was elected President.
eisenhower1
Eisenhower

-> Eisenhower was popular because of his success during WWII.

  • People wanted a president who could fight communism in other countries, and Eisenhower fit the bill.

-> Eisenhower believed that the key to winning the cold war was two-fold.

    • > Increase the military might of the USA
    • > Ensure a strong economy
eisenhower2
Eisenhower
  • Eisenhower realized that a conventional war would cost too much money.

-> He focused instead on developing nuclear technology.

    • Eisenhower said the nation, “must be prepared to use atomic weapons in all forms.”
    • The Korean War convinced many Americans that small battles would just lead to loss of life.

-> Eisenhower developed a “New Look” in defense policy.

    • > If the USA threatened to use nuclear weapons, Communist countries would be too scared to seize territory by force.
    • > This policy became known as massive retaliation
eisenhower3
Eisenhower
  • The massive retaliation policy meant Eisenhower could cut military spending.
    • > In his first term, Eisenhower cut the budget of the U.S. military from $50 billion to $34 billion.

-> Eisenhower also increased America’s nuclear arsenal from 1,000 bombs (1953) to 18,000 (1961)

  • This increase in nuclear weapons meant the USA needed better ways to deliver them
    • > The B- 52 bomber was developed
    • Designed to fly across whole continents, and deliver nuclear bombs anywhere.
  • Eisenhower also began work on ICBMs – intercontinental ballistic missiles, as well as nuclear submarines.
sputnik crisis
Sputnik Crisis
  • The U.S. gov’t was stunned to discover that, while they were developing their nuclear arsenal, the USSR had already developed their own.

-> October 4, 1957 – the Soviets launched Sputnik

    • > Sputnik was the first man-made satellite to orbit the earth.
    • It was a huge success for science, but it made the Americans nervous
    • The concern was – if the USSR could put a satellite in space, what else could they do?

-> 1958: Congress creates the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).

    • > The goal of NASA was to develop rocket science, and space exploration.
brinkmanship
Brinkmanship

- > Not everyone approved of Eisenhower’s massive retaliation policy.

-> Critics called it brinkmanship

    • > Brinkmanship – the willingness to go to the brink of war to force the other side to back down.
  • Many thought it was too dangerous.
  • However, Eisenhower threatened to use nuclear weapons several times to end international crises.
brinkmanship1

Brinkmanship in Action

Brinkmanship
  • Korea
  • Korea: In order to end the conflict in Korea, Eisenhower threatened to use nuclear weapons.
    • Eisenhower told the Chinese (who were supporting North Korea) the USA would stay in the war “under circumstances of our own choosing.”
    • This was a threat that if the war didn’t come to an end, the USA would use nuclear weapons.
    • The threat seemed to work – in July 1953, negotiators signed an armistice – not a truce, but a cease fire.
    • That armistice is still in effect today.
brinkmanship2

Brinkmanship in Action

Brinkmanship
  • Korea
  • Taiwan:Eisenhower threatened the Chinese with nuclear weapons again in 1954, over the issue of Taiwan.
    • When Mao Zedong’s communist government took control of China, many Nationalists fled to islands off the coast – including Taiwan.
    • > In the fall of 1954, China threatened to seize two of the small islands from Taiwan. China started bombing the islands.
    • Eisenhower saw Nationalist Taiwan as part of the “anticommunist barrier” in Asia.
    • > To protect Taiwan, Eisenhower again threatened to use nuclear weapons. China backed down.
brinkmanship3

Brinkmanship in Action

Brinkmanship
  • Korea

-> Egypt:Americans wanted to gain support in the Middle East. The USA offered to help Egyptians build a dam on the Nile river. This led to the Suez Crisis.

    • Egypt was buying weapons from communist Czechoslovakia.
      • Because of this, the Americans backed out of the deal, and said they wouldn’t help with the dam.
    • The Egyptians were angry, and seized the Suez Canal
      • The Canal was on Egyptian land, controlled by Britain and France.
    • > October 1956 – British and French troops invade Egypt.
      • Both the US and USSR threatened to use nuclear weapons to defend their allies.
    • Eisenhower pressured Britain and France to call off the invasion.
    • > This was a victory for the USSR though – now countries in the Middle East were more likely to ally with the USSR.
containment
Containment
  • Eisenhower’s policy led to a focus on containment in developing nations.
    • Containment: preventing communism from spreading. “Containing” it to the countries in which it already exists.
  • Eisenhower wanted to fight communism covertly – getting involved in the affairs of other countries to prevent the spread of communism.
    • The CIA staged several covert operations to remove communist leaders and replace them with pro-American leaders.
    • This led to a change in government in Iran and Guatemala.
  • These covert operations also led to problems. When the USSR discovered an American spy plane, it de-railed a summit between Khrushchev and Eisenhower.
containment1
Containment
  • Homework:
  • Read “Fighting Communism Covertly”, and answer the questions about Containment, and fighting communism.
kennedy
Kennedy
  • The Election of 1960 was unlike any that had been seen before. It was the first election with widely televised debates.
  • Both candidates (John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon) had similar campaign promises.
    • Boosting the U.S. economy, stopping the spread of communism, and a feared “missile gap” between US and USSR.
  • Kennedy defeated Nixon by a small margin. Some claim it was because he looked better on TV!
kennedy1
Kennedy

-> Kennedy had lofty goals for his presidency. He called his agenda the New Frontier.

  • He did not have much support in Congress, however, and many thought hisideas were too expensive
    • Kennedy wanted to increase aid to education, provide health insurance, create a Department of Urban Affairs and help migrant workers. None of these were passed.

-> Kennedy was able to improve the nation’s economy.

    • > Kennedy, like FDR, utilized deficit spending
    • > He also increased business production and efficiency
    • > Kennedy wanted tax cuts, as well. When opponents said that would only help the wealthy, Kennedy said, “a rising tide lifts all boats.”
the warren court
The Warren Court
  • During the Kennedy years, the Supreme Court took an active role in social issues.
  • Earl Warren was chief justice of the Supreme Court.
  • The Warren Court made many important decisions that affect life today. For Example…

Baker v. Carr (1962) and Reynolds v. Simms (1964)Ruled on the constitutionality of how districts were represented in Congress. Before this, the lines hadn’t been redrawn when people moved to the suburbs, so some areas didn’t have enough representatives in Congress.

the warren court1
The Warren Court

Brown v. Board of Education – 1954

Segregation in public schools is unconstitutional

  • Civil Rights Decisions

Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States - 1964Desegregation of public accommodations, established in the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is legal

Lowing v. Virginia - 1967States may not ban interracial marriage

the warren court2
The Warren Court

Mapp v. Ohio – 1961

Unlawfully seized evidence is inadmissible in court

  • Due Process Decisions

Gideon v. Wainwright - 1963Suspects are entitled to a court-appointed attorney if they cannot afford one

Escobedo v. Illinois – 1964

Accused has the right to an attorney during police questioning

Miranda v. Arizona - 1966

Police must inform suspects of their rights during arrest process

the warren court3
The Warren Court

Engel v. Vitale - 1962

Nondenominational prayer in school banned

  • Freedom of Religion, Speech, and Privacy

Abington School District v. Schempp - 1963

Daily Bible reading in school banned

New York Times v. Sullivan - 1964

Celebrities may sue the media for libel only in certain circumstances (celebrity must prove malicious intent)

Griswold v. Connecticut - 1965

Prohibiting the sale of birth control violates right to privacy

major crises
Major Crises
  • The Bay of Pigs
    • > Fidel Castro had become leader of Cuba, and he established ties with the USSR
    • Eisenhower (when he was president) authorized the CIA to secretly train and arm Cuban exiles and have them invade Cuba
    • > The army of Cuban exiles was called La Brigada
    • > Kennedy encouraged the invasion
    • > April 17, 1961 – 1,400 armed Cuban exiles landed at the Bay of Pigs
    • >The invasion was a disaster
      • Boats ran aground, Kennedy cancelled air support, and the expected uprising didn’t happen.
    • > Castro’s forces captured the exiles, and found out about the U.S. involvement.
major crises1
Major Crises
  • Berlin Wall
    • Kennedy met with Nikita Khruschevin June, 1961
    • >Kennedy refused to recognize East Germany as its own country.
    • >In response, Khruschevhad a wall built, separating East and West Berlin – blocking movement out of the Soviet sector.
    • The Berlin Wall became a symbol of the Cold War, and wouldn’t be taken down for 30 years
major crises2
Major Crises
  • Cuban Missile Crisis
    • > October 22, 1962: Kennedy learns the USSR has placed long-range missiles in Cuba.
    • Kennedy ordered a naval blockade, and threatened massive retaliation if missiles were not removed.
    • > Ultimately, the Soviets and Americans made a deal:

-> USA would remove its missiles from Turkey

-> USSR would remove its missiles from Cuba

-> The USA would not invade Cuba

assassination
Assassination
  • November 22, 1963: the presidential motorcade is moving through Dallas, Texas
  • Two shots were fired – Kennedy had been assassinated
  • Lee Harvey Oswald had stationed himself in a book depository, and had shot the President
  • The Warren Commission officially decided that Oswald had acted alone.
  • However, Oswald was himself killed when he was arrested. Some suspected conspiracy, or the presence of a second gunman.
civil rights movie
Civil Rights – Movie
  • Pay attention and TAKE NOTES during this movie clip. You will have a QUIZ on the information!
civil rights review
Civil Rights – Review

Brown v. Board of Education: The Brown family sued the Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. Supreme Court rules that separate- but-equal is unconstitutional when applied to schools.

  • What landmark supreme court case de-segregated schools?
  • Who was Emmitt Till?
  • What was the Montgomery Bus Boycott?
  • Who was Martin Luther King Jr.?

Emmitt Till was a 14 year old African American boy. He was beaten, shot, and his body was thrown in a river. His crime: talking to a white woman. His murderers were found not guilty.

Nearly the entire African-American population of Montgomery, Alabama, refused to take the busses for 11 months, until they were de-segregated. Began with Rosa Parks’ case.

Martin Luther King Jr. was a young minister who helped to rally people during the Bus Boycott, and became a major leader during the Civil Rights movement.

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Civil Rights – Cont.
  • Actions toward de-segregation often led to violence:
    • >Arkansas: 9 African-American students attempted to enter a newly integrated school.
      • Troops from the Arkansas military were used to prevent the students from entering.
      • The U.S. Army had to send troops to protect the black students.
    • >Alabama: the Freedom Riders – a group of African Americans and whites – rode interstate busses into the south to protest bus terminals still being segregated.
      • They faced violence at many stops in Alabama.
    • >Mississippi: James Meredith, an air force veteran, wanted to transfer to the University of Mississippi.
      • The law said they had to admit him, but the Governor didn’t let him.
      • After a full-scale riot, Meredith continued to take classes accompanied by a federal guard.
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Civil Rights – Cont.

“The heart of the question is whether…we are going to treat our fellow Americans as we want to be treated. If an American, because his skin is dark, cannot eat lunch in a restaurant…if he cannot send his children to the best public school available, if he cannot vote for the public officials who will represent him…then who among us would be content to have the color of his skin changed and stand in his place?” – Kennedy’s White House Address

  • In response to the growing violence in the South, Kennedy announced a Civil Rights bill.
  • MLK knew Kennedy would have a hard time getting the bill to pass.

-> King and A. Philip Randolph gathered more than 200,000 people and led them in a March on Washington.

-> When the group gathered around the Lincoln Memorial, King gave his now-famous “I have a dream” speech.

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Civil Rights – Cont.
  • Though it was not passed until the Johnson administration, eventually the Act did become law.

->The Civil Rights Act of 1964:

    • Segregation is now illegal in almost all public areas
    • All races have equal access to restaurants, parks, libraries, theatres etc.
    • The Attorney General has power to force schools to de-segregate
    • Employers are required to end segregation in the workplace
    • - >The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is established to monitor job discrimination.
  • -> The Voting Rights Act of 1965
    • -> The Attorney General can send federal officials to register voters – bypassing the often corrupt local officials.
black power
Black Power
  • After 1965, many young African-Americans started thinking King’snon-violent approach was not getting enough done.

-> Many called for black power

    • This term could mean physical self defense, or even violence, was acceptable to gain equal rights
    • It could also mean that African Americans should control the social, political, and economic direction of the Movement.
    • Black Power emphasized racial distinctiveness, vs. assimilation

-> Malcolm X became a symbol of the Black Power movement.

malcolm x
Malcolm X

-> Malcolm X became a major leader of the Black Power movement.

-> He joined the Nation of Islam (commonly called Black Muslims)

    • Despite the name, there is little connection to the traditional Muslim faith

-> Black Muslims believed that African Americans should separate themselves from whites completely.

  • Malcolm made a pilgrimage to Mecca, and saw people of all races worshipping together, and this changed his mind.

-> Malcolm X eventually broke with the Black Muslims.

  • Malcolm began criticizing the Black Muslims.

-> Ultimately, three members of the group assassinated him while he was giving a speech.

black panthers
Black Panthers

-> The Black Panthers were created in 1966.

  • Started by Huey Newton, Bobby Seale, and Eldridge Cleaver – the Black Panthers called themselves the “heirs” of Malcolm X.

-> The Black Panthers were militant.

    • >They believed in black power, black nationalism, and economic self-sufficiency.
  • The Black Panther party would remain popular through the 1970s.
assassination of king
Assassination of King
  • Martin Luther King Jr. went to Memphis Tennessee to support a strike of African American sanitation workers.
    • King was hoping that his support of the labor strike would force the government to pass legislation to help impoverished people for all races.

-> On the evening of April 4, 1968, while standing on his hotel room balcony, King was assassinated by a sniper.

    • The sniper was James Earl Ray. He was arrested trying to flee the country and sentenced to 99 years in prison. He died in prison.
    • > In the wake of King’s death, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1968, includinga fair housing provision.
  • The movement would continue,but it was not the same without King’s leadership.
vietnam war
Vietnam War
  • Vietnam had been occupied by many different countries throughout its history – most recently by France.
    • At first, the United States sent aid to France to help them keep their colony (and to keep Vietnam from becoming communist)
  • However, the Geneva Accords of 1954 stated Vietnam would become an independent country, and that elections would be held in 1956. Until then, the country was divided:

-> North Vietnam

    • > Leader – Ho Chi Minh
    • > Communist government
    • > Led the rebellion of the Vietminh that drove out the French

-> South Vietnam

    • > Leader – Ngo Dinh Diem
    • > Nationalist government, pro-Western, pro-American
    • > Worried that intimidation from North Vietnamese leaders will make people elect a communist government

Ho Chi Minh

Ngo Dinh Diem

vietnam war1
Vietnam War
  • Ngo Dinh Diem (South Vietnam) refuses to hold national elections.
  • Ho Chi Minh and his followers begin an armed struggle to reunify the nation.

-> Vietcong – a new guerilla army, fighting for North Vietnam

  • The Vietcong quickly grow very powerful.

-> Many Vietnamese citizens oppose Diem’s government, and support Minh.

  • By 1961, the Vietcong had assassinated thousands of pro- Western officials.

-> Diem looked to the United States for help

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Vietnam War
  • Ngo Dinh Diem lost even more support because…
    • The Nationalist government was corrupt
    • There were no plans to help the peasants
    • > Diem’s troops took over villages and towns and used them as military outposts
    • > Diem also discriminated against Buddhists
      • A photo of a Buddhist monk self immolating in protest of Diem.

-> November 1, 1963: Diem is killed by several of his own generals

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Gulf of Tonkin

Vietnam War
  • After Diem’s
  • August 2, 1964: President Johnson announces that North Vietnamese ships had fired at American ones off of the Gulf of Tonkin.
    • The U.S. had been helping the South Vietnamese conduct military raids, but Johnson left this out – he wanted it to look like an unprovoked attack.

-> Gulf of Tonkin Resolution:

-> Authorized the president to “take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against he forces of the United States…”

-> This ultimately gave all war power to the President

    • Soon after, the United States sent troops to Vietnam
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Stalemate

Vietnam War
  • After Diem’s
  • By the end of 1966, there were more than 360,000 American troops in Vietnam.

-> The Vietcong used guerilla warfare, ambushes, and booby traps.

    • The Vietcong also had an advantage – they could blend in with the local population and “disappear”.
    • The VC were supporter by the Soviet Union
    • > They used a supply line called the “Ho Chi Minh Trail” to get supplies from North to South Vietnam

-> American strategy:

    • Search and destroy missions (bombs dropped on strategic areas)
    • > Napalm (burn down the trees the VC used for cover)
    • > Agent Orange – a chemical that stripped leaves from trees,
      • Left soldiers on all sides with horrible side effects (including burns, lung problems, and psychological issues).
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The War Loses Support

Vietnam War
  • After Diem’s

-> The Tet Offensive

    • On Vietnamese New Year, (1/30/1968) the Vietcong launched a massive surprise attack at virtually ALL American bases, and the South Vietnamese’s major cities.
    • Ultimately it was unsuccessful for the VC
    • However, people in America saw the VC as a force that would not back down, and the war lost more support than ever.

-> Massacre at My Lai

    • > November 1969 – Lt. William Calley and his troops massacre more than 200 unarmed Vietnamese
    • The Vietnamese people are mostly elderly, women and children.
    • The war becomes even more unpopular in the USA.

-> American Troops invade Cambodia

    • Cambodia, a neighboring country, was not involved in the war.
    • This sparks massive protests, including one at Kent State University, where several students were killed.
end of the war
End of the War

-> By 1971, polls showed the American people wanted out of the Vietnam War.

    • The U.S. stages one last bombing raid, but ultimately peace talks begin.

-> January 27, 1973: The warring sides sign an agreement “ending the war and restoring the peace in Vietnam”.

    • The United States withdraws its troops from Vietnam over the next two years.
  • March 1975: North Vietnam launches a full scale invasion of South Vietnam

-> By April 30th, 1975 Vietnam was re-unified, under a Communist government.

-> The Vietnam War – lasting 8 years – becomes the longest war in American history.

nixon
Nixon
  • 1968: Former Vice President, Richard Nixon, is running for President.

-> Nixon’s platform: Restoring law and order, and traditional values at home. Reduce Cold War tensions abroad.

  • By this point, both the Vietnam War, and the Cold War in general were losing support, and Nixon wanted to calm both issues.
  • Republican Nixon won the election of 1968 in part because of his Southern Strategy.
  • The Southern Strategy was a promise that Nixon made to South Carolina senator Strom Thurmond: he promised to appoint only conservatives to federal courts, to appoint a Southerner to the Supreme Courts, and to support Southern goals.
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Nixon
  • Because of his support of the Southern state governments and conservative court justices, Nixon also removed presidential support from many Civil Rights policies.

-> Nixon’s main goal at first was to deal with the rise of crime in the United States.

-> Nixon’s administration supported prosecution of draft dodgers, radical students, deserters, and street criminals.

nixon foreign policy
Nixon – Foreign Policy

-> Nixon took a great interest in foreign policy.

-> He appointed Henry Kissinger to national security adviser, who played a huge role in shaping foreign policy.

  • Nixon and Kissinger agreed on many points: they thought abandoning Vietnam would damage the U.S.’s position in the world, and worked together to plan a gradual withdrawal.

-> Nixon and Kissinger also believed in a practical approach toward Communism – rather than a long war of ideologies, both men favored engagement and negotiation.

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Nixon – Foreign Policy
  • Nixon and Kissinger worked to repair the United States’ relationship with the Soviet Union, and with China.
  • Though Nixon was anti-Communist, he was more realistic when it came to global issues.

-> Nixon and Kissinger created a new approach- détente: a relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the USSR and China.

“We must understand that détente is not a love fest. It is an understanding between nations that have opposite purposes, but which share common interests, including the avoidance of nuclear war. Such an understanding can work…” – Nixon, describing the proposed détente

nixon foreign policy2
Nixon – Foreign Policy
  • Since the Communist revolution in China, the US had not recognized the Communist government as a legitimate one, and had always supported the Nationalist faction in Taiwan.
  • Nixon knew this was not going to work: first he lifted trade and travel restrictions to and from China, and then removed naval support from Taiwan.

-> April 1971: the American ping-pong team is invited to China for friendly competition - the first Americans to enter China since the Communist takeover in 1949.

-> February, 1972: Nixon visits China, agreeing to establish “more normal” relations between the two countries.

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Nixon – Foreign Policy

-> May, 1972 – Nixon flies to Moscow for a two- week long American-Soviet summit.

-> During the meeting, Nixon and Soviet premier Leonid Brezhnev signed the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) – a plan to limit nuclear arms.

-> The two leaders also agreed to increase trade, and trade scientific information.

  • Nixon’s foreign policy legacy began the end of the Cold War – improving relations with both China and the USSR.
  • However, Nixon would soon face scandal at home.
nixon re election
Nixon – Re-Election
  • 1972: Nixon is beginning his re-election campaign
  • Many Republicans were optimistic – Nixon had just made huge strides in China and the USSR, and his opponent (George McGovern) was seen by many as too liberal.
  • Nixon was worried about his re-election chances, however, and wanted to get an edge any way he could.

-> In the early hours of June 17, 1972, five Nixon supporters broke into the Democratic party’s office at the Watergate complex in Washington DC. Their goal was to plant wiretaps, and find sensitive campaign information. They were caught by police.

nixon cover up
Nixon – Cover-Up
  • Following the break-in, the media discovered that one of the burglars was ex-CIA. Reports surfaced that the burglars had been paid to execute the break-in.
  • Initially, Nixon denied any involvement – saying, “The White House has had no involvement whatever in this particular incident.”
  • The strategy worked – Nixon was voted into a second term.
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Nixon – Cover-Up
  • Over the next few months, however, the cover-up of the Watergate scandal unraveled.
  • The testimony of the burglars escalated: soon there were floods of confessions and accusations from White House and campaign officials.

-> Ultimately, Nixon himself was implicated. The court claimed he ordered the break in of the Democratic offices, and then tried to cover it up.

  • On July 16, 1973, a White House aide came forward, saying that the question of Nixon’s involvement could be resolved – the President had a system of tapes installed in the White House, recording all conversations.
nixon cover up2
Nixon – Cover-Up

-> Nixon refused to give the tapes to the court.

-> He claimed executive privilege – claiming that any conversations in the White House should be kept confidential as a matter of national security.

-> The House Judiciary Committee voted to impeachNixon, saying he was obstructing justice.

  • Nixon was forced to give up the tapes… but his secretary had ‘accidentally’ erased huge portions of them.

-> However, one of the unedited tapes revealed Nixon’s involvement in the cover-up.

-> On August 9th, 1973, Nixon resigned.

cold war impact
Cold War - Impact

The Cold War would technically continue until 1991, but now Gerald Ford had to manage the country.

Your assignment:

Read the information about the End of the Cold War, and answer the following:

Who won the Cold War? Why/How?