The requisite knowledge of real time presentations
Download
1 / 29

The Requisite Knowledge of Real-time Presentations: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 116 Views
  • Updated On :

The Requisite Knowledge of Real-time Presentations:. Using the Philosophy of Language to Advantage in Organizational Contexts. Wayne Smith, Ph.D. Department of Management CSU Northridge. How are (Written) Compositions different from (Spoken) Presentations?. Proximate (close) Physicality.

Related searches for The Requisite Knowledge of Real-time Presentations:

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'The Requisite Knowledge of Real-time Presentations:' - aquene


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
The requisite knowledge of real time presentations l.jpg

The Requisite Knowledge of Real-time Presentations:

Using the Philosophy of Language to Advantage in Organizational Contexts

Wayne Smith, Ph.D.

Department of Management

CSU Northridge


How are written compositions different from spoken presentations l.jpg
How are (Written) Compositions different from (Spoken) Presentations?

Proximate

(close)

Physicality

“Pull-based”

Conferencing

(remote, non-simultaneous

access)

Presentation

Deliverable

(privilege an individual

over a technology)

Space

“Push-based”

Conferencing

(remote, simultaneous

access)

Written

Deliverable

(privilege a technology

over an individual)

Distal

(far)

Physicality

Asynchronous

(intermediated)

Synchronous

(real-time)

Time


Some basic definitions l.jpg
Some Basic Definitions Presentations?

  • Elocution

    • The art and style of public speaking

    • (morpheme) stress, tone, intonation, and contour

  • Articulation

    • Physical speech production


Physical model l.jpg
“Physical” Model Presentations?

Sender

Receiver

Message

Speaker (S)

Hearer (H)


Some advanced definitions l.jpg
Some Advanced Definitions Presentations?

  • Syntax

    • The formal rules of language

  • Semantics

    • Meaning

  • Pragmatics

    • How language is actually used

  • Sentence

    • Written form, writers follow rules – e.g., Subject-Verb-Object

  • Utterance

    • Spoken form, speakers craft meaning – e.g., “Let’s Roll!”


P grice s cooperative principle l.jpg
P. Grice’s Cooperative Principle Presentations?

  • Cooperative principle (4 parts)

    • “Each participant…accepts a common purpose or a mutually-accepted direction”

  • Quantity

    • Don’t say too little; don’t say too much

  • Quality

    • State what is true

    • State what you believe to be true

    • Describe the evidence in support of the truth

  • Relation

    • Stay on subject; don’t digress

    • Be relevant

  • Manner

    • Emphasize clear and unambiguous expressions


The uses of feedback l.jpg
The Uses of Feedback Presentations?

Sender

Receiver

Message

Feedback

(Quantity; Quality; Relation; Manner)

Speaker (S)

Hearer (H)


Contemporary behavioral psychology l.jpg
Contemporary Behavioral Psychology Presentations?

  • Think

    • (your “reasoning”)

  • Feel

    • (your “senses”)

  • Act

    • (your “change”)


Contemporary behavioral psychology9 l.jpg
Contemporary Behavioral Psychology Presentations?

Think – explain

your objective thoughts

Feel – express your

subjective emotions

Act – impact on hearer’s desire

Feedback

Speaker (S)

Hearer (H)


Aristotle s rhetoric l.jpg
Aristotle’s Rhetoric Presentations?

  • Logos

    • (your “logic”)

  • Pathos

    • (your “emotion”)

  • Ethos

    • (your “character”)


Aristotle s rhetoric11 l.jpg
Aristotle’s Rhetoric Presentations?

Logos – mostly

verbal elocution

Pathos – mostly

non-verbal style

Ethos – mostly neither

Feedback

Speaker (S)

Hearer (H)


Advantages to the philosophical model l.jpg
Advantages to the “Philosophical” Model Presentations?

  • Cross-Cultural

    • De-emphasizes pronunciation/elocution, emphasizes meaning and understanding

  • Technology

    • Likely works for any communication technology (in the past, and more important, in the future)

  • Science

    • Likely works regardless of how rapidly cognitive psychology or neuro-science advances (e.g., fMRI, Oxytocin)

  • Can reverse the Speaker/Hearer roles without change to the model

    • “Feedback” becomes just another type of “meaning”

  • Works for Writing

    • Intentionality, Meaning, Understanding is a complete thought in very nearly the same way as “Subject Verb Object”

  • Works for non-verbal (i.e., non-writing, non-speaking) actions too (see next slide)


A theory of speech mostly j searle l.jpg
A Presentations?Theory of Speech(mostly J. Searle)

  • Intentionality

    • (your “belief” [to state])

  • Meaning

    • (your “proposition” [of content])

  • Understanding

    • (your “desire” [to act])


Philosophical model l.jpg
“Philosophical” Model Presentations?

Intentionality

Understanding

Meaning

Speaker (S)

Hearer (H)


Philosophical model15 l.jpg
“Philosophical” Model Presentations?

Intentionality

(conscious or subconscious)

Understanding

(explanation or prediction)

Meaning

(constitutive or causal)

Speaker (S)

Hearer (H)


Philosophical model16 l.jpg
“Philosophical” Model Presentations?

Belief

(statement-assertion)

Desire

(affirmation-statement)

Prior-intention

(decision)

Intention-in-action

(decision)

Intentionality

(conscious or unconscious)

Understanding

(explanation or prediction)

Meaning

(constitutive or causal)

Speaker (S)

Hearer (H)


Philosophical model17 l.jpg
“Philosophical” Model Presentations?

Belief

(statement-assertion)

Representation-level

Desire

(affirmation-statement)

Prior-intention

(decision)

Conditions of Satisfaction-level

Intention-in-action

(decision)

Intentionality

(conscious or subconscious)

Proposition-level

Understanding

(explanation or prediction)

Meaning

(constitutive or causal)

Speaker (S)

Hearer (H)


Philosophical model18 l.jpg
“Philosophical” Model Presentations?

Consciousness

Consciousness

Belief

(statement-assertion)

Representation-level

Desire

(affirmation-statement)

Prior-intention

(decision)

Conditions of Satisfaction-level

Intention-in-action

(decision)

Intentionality

(conscious or subconscious)

Proposition-level

Understanding

(explanation or prediction)

Meaning

(constitutive or causal)

Speaker (S)

Hearer (H)

Reality


Classes of performative verbs l.jpg
Classes of Performative Verbs Presentations?

  • Assertive/Representative = speech acts that commit a speaker to the truth of the expressed proposition, e.g. reciting a material fact

  • Expressives = speech acts that express the speaker's attitudes and emotions towards the proposition, e.g. “thanks for allowing us to work on this project”; relative emphasis on one particular theory in the ethical considerations sections

  • Declarations = speech acts that change the reality in accord with the proposition of the declaration, e.g. leading the audience through a legal or statistical analysis which clarifies the truth/falsity of reality

  • Directives = speech acts that are to cause the hearer to take a particular action, e.g. “please raise your hand if you can’t hear us in the back of the room”

  • Commissives = speech acts that commit a speaker to some future action, e.g. “we’ll get back to you on that question”


Performative verbs modal auxiliaries are particularly difficult l.jpg
Performative Verbs (“Modal Auxiliaries”) are particularly difficult

  • Absolute Requirement

    • “Must”, “Required”, “Shall”

  • Absolute Prohibition

    • “Must Not”, “Cannot”, “Shall Not”

  • There may exist a valid reason in special circumstances and situations

    • “Should” and “Recommended”

  • There may exist more than one valid reason in special circumstances and situations

    • “May” and “Optional”

  • You need to 1), practice and choose your words carefully, 2), practice some more (with feedback from others), and 3) slow down in your delivery


Sources excerpted and adapted l.jpg
Sources particularly difficult(excerpted and adapted)

  • Searle, J. (1979), Expression and Meaning: Studies in the Theory of Speech Acts, Cambridge University Press.

  • http://ist-socrates.berkeley.edu/~jsearle

    • /whatislanguage.pdf

    • /AnthropologicalTheoryFNLversion.doc

  • Meyer, C. (2009), Introducing English Linguistics, Cambridge University Press.


  • Back pocket slides l.jpg
    “Back Pocket” Slides particularly difficult


    Characteristics of an utterance spoken presentation l.jpg
    Characteristics of an Utterance- (Spoken Presentation) particularly difficult

    • Sentence Meaning vs. Utterance Meaning

      • In grammatical sentences (generally), Syntax -> Semantics

      • In pragmatic utterances (again, generally), (Network) Background -> Semantics

    • Dexis

      • What does the utterance refer to?

    • Presupposition

      • What is the logical meaning of the utterance?

    • Performative

      • Where is the knowledge-action boundary?

    • Implicature

      • What is the implicit or indirect meaning?


    Performative utterances j austin 1911 1960 l.jpg
    Performative Utterances particularly difficult (J. Austin, 1911-1960)

    • Locutionary

      • The act of saying something

      • The surface, descriptive details in the utterance

      • Both the speaker and hearer generally agree on the relationship

        • This is probably the bulk of the presentation

    • Illocutionary

      • The act in saying something

      • The intentionality of the utterance

      • The speaker needs to know (or should know) this

        • This is probably the bulk of the constitutive preparation (represents something done earlier)

    • Perlocutionary

      • The act by saying something

      • What is the actual effect of the utterance?

      • The hearer needs to do (or is likely to do) this

        • This is probably the bulk of the causal action (represents something done later)


    J austin s speech act theory l.jpg
    J. Austin’s “Speech Act” Theory particularly difficult

    • We care about the theory and practice of “saying” and “doing”

    • Degree of Clarity

      • Explicit

      • Implicit

    • Degree of Force

      • Direct

      • Indirect

    • Degree of Structure

      • Literal

      • Non-literal


    Some examples l.jpg
    Some Examples particularly difficult

    • Degree of Clarity

      • Explicit

        • “The rationale for our legal conclusion is as follows…”

      • Implicit

        • “Our ethical considerations are as follows…”

    • Degree of Force

      • Direct

        • “Our strategic considerations are as follows…”

      • Indirect

        • “The results of the hypothesis test are as follows…”

    • Degree of Structure

      • Literal

        • “The material facts in this case are as follows…”

      • Non-literal

        • “Our team’s recommendation are as follows…”


    Final thoughts l.jpg
    Final Thoughts particularly difficult

    • Gottlob Frege (1848-1925)

      • Differentiate between “denotation” and “sense” (names/descriptions)

    • Ferdinand de Saussure (1857-1913)

      • Signifier (what it is)

      • Signified (what is meant)

    • Mikhail Bakhtin (1895-1975)

      • Primary genres (everyday speech)

      • Secondary genres (speech in a technical community)

    • Michel Foucault (1926-1984)

      • Power-knowledge

      • It might be the wrong knowledge, but in any case, the two aren’t separable concepts.

    • Jacques Derrida (1930-2004)

      • “The task for us today is to learn to speak the language of the other without renouncing our own.”