Earth’s Sub-Surface Processes. CONTINENTAL DRIFT. The process by which the continents move slowly across Earth’s surface. PLATE TECTONICS. The theory that pieces of the Earth’s lithosphere, called plates, move about slowly on top of the asthenosphere. ALFRED WEGENER.
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The process by which the continents move slowly across Earth’s surface.
The theory that pieces of the Earth’s lithosphere, called plates, move about slowly on top of the asthenosphere.
AKA CONTINETAL DRIFT
The movement of the ocean floor away from either side of a mid-ocean ridge
Creates NEW CRUST!!!
A system of undersea mountain ranges that wind around the earth
When one plate moves under another plate at a plate boundary.
Why does this happen??
Oceanic crust is more dense
than continental crust, so
it is forced under the less
Zone of Subduction
Volcanic Island Arcs & Deep trenches
LITHOSPHERE: rigid interior of crust
ASTHENOSPHERE: plastic upper mantle
MANTLE: molten rock
OUTER CORE: liquid iron nickel
INNER CORE: solid iron nickel
Solid rock that slowly flows
San Andreas Fault
Rocks are pulled apart
Occurs at divergent boundaries
Rocks become thinner
Crustal rocks are pressed together
Occurs at convergent boundaries
Pushes rock higher up or deeper down in the crust
This stress pushes rocks in opposite direction
Sheared rock bends, breaks, and twists as they slide past each other
Occurs at transform faults
ANTICLINE: up-curved folds in layers of rock
SYNCLINE: down-curved folds in layers of rock
MONOCLINE: gently dipping bends in horizontal rock layers
If there is no movement on either side of break…this is a fracture.
When there is movement, this is a fault
Reverse fault Occurs along convergent boundaries and the hanging wall moves upward, relative to the footwall
Strike-slip fault Occurs along transform fault boundaries and the rock on either side of fault slides horizontally
Thrust fault special reverse fault where fault plane is nearly horizontal (common in steep mountains)
Seafloor spreading and Megathrust