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Astronomy

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  1. Astronomy Mr. King

  2. 1. Compare the surface of the moon with the surface of the earth. • Earth’s atmosphere causes erosion. • Earth’s surface is smooth with many changes. New surfaces are always being created by volcanoes, weather, and erosion. • Moon has little atmosphere. There is no erosion so the surface is rough and old.

  3. 2. Give a brief description of the moon’s history. • Craters are very old. • At one time, the moon went through a volcanic period. • Magma flowed through cracks and filled craters. • Dark areas on the moon (filled craters) are called: maries

  4. 3. Describe three theories that may account for the origin of the moon. • Daughter Theory - moon was part of the earth. • Sister Theory - both were formed at the same time. • Capture Theory - Moon was traveling and was captured by the earth.

  5. 4. Describe the motions of the earth-moon system. • Motion of the moon accounts for the tides. • Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days. • The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face of the moon points at the earth.

  6. Describe the motions of the earth-moon system. • Motion of the earth accounts for the tides. • Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days. • The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face of the moon points at the earth.

  7. Describe the motions of the earth-moon system. • Motion of the earth accounts for the tides. • Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days. • The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face of the moon points at the earth.

  8. Describe the motions of the earth-moon system. • Motion of the earth accounts for the tides. • Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days. • The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face of the moon points at the earth.

  9. Describe the motions of the earth-moon system. • Motion of the earth accounts for the tides. • Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days. • The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face of the moon points at the earth.

  10. Describe the motions of the earth-moon system. • Motion of the earth accounts for the tides. • Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days. • The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face of the moon points at the earth.

  11. Describe the motions of the earth-moon system. • Motion of the earth accounts for the tides. • Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days. • The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face of the moon points at the earth.

  12. Describe the motions of the earth-moon system. • Motion of the earth accounts for the tides. • Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days. • The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face of the moon points at the earth.

  13. Describe the motions of the earth-moon system. • Motion of the earth accounts for the tides. • Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days. • The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face of the moon points at the earth.

  14. Describe the motions of the earth-moon system. • Motion of the earth accounts for the tides. • Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days. • The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face of the moon points at the earth.

  15. Describe the motions of the earth-moon system. • Motion of the earth accounts for the tides. • Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days. • The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face of the moon points at the earth.

  16. Describe the motions of the earth-moon system. • Motion of the earth accounts for the tides. • Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days. • The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face of the moon points at the earth.

  17. Describe the motions of the earth-moon system. • Motion of the earth accounts for the tides. • Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days. • The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face of the moon points at the earth.

  18. Describe the motions of the earth-moon system. • Motion of the earth accounts for the tides. • Moon revolves around the earth every 27 days. • The moon rotates every 27 days so that the same face of the moon points at the earth.

  19. 5. Explain how eclipses of the sun and moon occur. • Solar Eclipse: Moon is between the sun and the earth - happens at a new moon. • Lunar Eclipse: Earth is between the sun and the moon - happens at a full moon

  20. 6. Describe ways of gaining information about the stars. • Stars give off: infrared, x-rays, ultraviolet, radio wave and different colors of light. • By spectroscope, each star’s light is split into colors. Each star has a different set of colors.

  21. 7. List two ways of finding the distance between the earth and a star. • Parallax - use angles to find the distance. • Brightness - the closer a star is to us, the brighter.

  22. List two ways of finding the distance between the earth and a star. • Parallax - use angles to find the distance. • Brightness - the closer a star is to us, the brighter. Known distance

  23. List two ways of finding the distance between the earth and a star. • Parallax - use angles to find the distance. • Brightness - the closer a star is to us, the brighter. Known distance

  24. List two ways of finding the distance between the earth and a star. • Parallax - use angles to find the distance. • Brightness - the closer a star is to us, the brighter. Known distance Angle-side-angle

  25. 8. Be able to identify these constellations.

  26. Be able to identify these constellations. Orion

  27. Be able to identify these constellations. Orion Little Dipper

  28. Be able to identify these constellations. Orion Big Dipper Little Dipper

  29. Be able to identify these constellations. Leo the Lion Orion Big Dipper Little Dipper

  30. Be able to identify these constellations. Leo the Lion Orion Cassiopeia Big Dipper Little Dipper

  31. Be able to identify these constellations. Leo the Lion Orion Cassiopeia Big Dipper Little Dipper Cygnus

  32. Be able to identify these constellations. Leo the Lion Orion Cassiopeia Big Dipper Little Dipper Cygnus

  33. Be able to identify these constellations. Leo the Lion Orion Cassiopeia Big Dipper Little Dipper Cygnus

  34. Be able to identify these constellations. Leo the Lion Orion Cassiopeia Polaris (North Star) Big Dipper Little Dipper Cygnus

  35. 9. Relate the color of a star to its age and temperature • Nebula: (Gas cloud) low or no temperature • 1st stage: Main sequence star medium temperature the color is usually yellow - our own sun is this. • 2nd stage: Red Giant, color red and the star is at a cooler temp. • 3rd stage: White Dwarf - white or blue - very hot will blow up in a Nova • Final stage Neutron star - Black hole

  36. 10. Explain what a light year is. • A light year is the distance it takes for light to travel in one year. • Alpha Centauri is our closets star (not including our own sun) that is 4.5 light years away. • Light travels 300,000 meters in one second

  37. 11. Describe the structure of the Milky Way Galaxy. • It is a spiral galaxy • Our solar system is about 30,000 light years away from the center • The diameter of the Galaxy is about 100,000 light years across. • About 400 billion stars.

  38. 12. Explain Red Shift. • It is just like the Doppler effect where as a train nears you the sound waves are at a higher pitch than when it passes you. • Light from stars does this also. When a star is moving away from us, it gives off a red glow, when it comes towards us, there is a blue glow.

  39. 13. Define: Quasar, supernova, nebula and Black hole • Quasar: Very distant large galaxies that give off a red shift. • Supernova: This is when a star explodes. • Nebula: Start of a new star; large pockets of gas. • Black hole: A star that collapses where there is no space between the atoms.

  40. 14. Name and Describe the layers of the sun. • Central Core 15,000,000 K Makes the energy - turns hydrogen into helium. • Photosphere is the light ball at 6,000 K • Atmosphere or Chromospheres gives off a faint red light • Coronae creates the solar wind.

  41. 15. Describe sunspots and prominences • Sunspots are cooler areas of the sun. They go through a 10 year period of many sunspots to few. Some years, tree rings are smaller indicating more sunspots. • Prominences are solar flares or hot spots on the sun that shoot high up in the chromospheres.

  42. 15. Explain how the sun affects the earth. • The sun gives all energy to the earth (minus geothermal energy)- plants take in the energy and transfer to animals. • However, harmful rays from the solar winds are deflected by the atmosphere and magnetic field of the earth.

  43. 16. How do the planets move? • The farther out the planets the longer it takes for planets to revolve around the sun. • Gravity holds the planets in orbit. • Speed of the planet would cause it to move in a straight line, but gravity from the sun holds the planet in orbit.

  44. 16. How do the planets move? • The farther out the planets the longer it takes for planets to revolve around the sun. • Gravity holds the planets in orbit. • Speed of the planet would cause it to move in a straight line, but gravity from the sun holds the planet in orbit.

  45. 16. How do the planets move? • The farther out the planets the longer it takes for planets to revolve around the sun. • Gravity holds the planets in orbit. • Speed of the planet would cause it to move in a straight line, but gravity from the sun holds the planet in orbit.

  46. 16. How do the planets move? • The farther out the planets the longer it takes for planets to revolve around the sun. • Gravity holds the planets in orbit. • Speed of the planet would cause it to move in a straight line, but gravity from the sun holds the planet in orbit.

  47. 16. How do the planets move? • The farther out the planets the longer it takes for planets to revolve around the sun. • Gravity holds the planets in orbit. • Speed of the planet would cause it to move in a straight line, but gravity from the sun holds the planet in orbit.

  48. 16. How do the planets move? • The farther out the planets the longer it takes for planets to revolve around the sun. • Gravity holds the planets in orbit. • Speed of the planet would cause it to move in a straight line, but gravity from the sun holds the planet in orbit.

  49. 16. How do the planets move? • The farther out the planets the longer it takes for planets to revolve around the sun. • Gravity holds the planets in orbit. • Speed of the planet would cause it to move in a straight line, but gravity from the sun holds the planet in orbit.