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Chapter 18: The Reformation. (1517-1688) What was the Reformation and how did it change Europe?. Section 1: The origins of the reformation. Focus Question: How did the leaders of the Reformation challenge the Catholic Church? Standards:

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chapter 18 the reformation

Chapter 18: The Reformation

(1517-1688)

What was the Reformation and how did it change Europe?

section 1 the origins of the reformation
Section 1: The origins of the reformation
  • Focus Question:
    • How did the leaders of the Reformation challenge the Catholic Church?
  • Standards:
    • List the causes for the internal turmoil in and weakening of the Catholic church.
    • Describe the theological, political, and economic ideas of the major figures during the Reformation
  • Main Ideas:
    • Martin Luther’s protests against the corruption of the Catholic Church attracted followers throughout Europe.
    • John Calvin and other Reformation thinkers helped spread Protestant ideas throughout Europe.
reform
Reform
  • What do people do when they reform something?
    • They try to make a change that they think will improve it.
  • Why might Catholics of the late Renaissance era want to reform the Church?
    • Record answers to reference.
before reading true or false
Before reading – True or False?
  • Martin Luther was a French philosopher who urged Church reform.
  • Luther objected to the Church’s sale of indulgences, or holy relics.
  • The 95 Theses were Luther’s challenge to the authority of the Catholic Church, which he saw as corrupt.
  • When Luther refused to take back his statements, the Holy Roman Emperor had him beheaded.
  • A generation after Luther, a Protestant named John Calvin taught the idea of predestination.
  • Protestants believed that the Bible should be translated into everyday language so that people could read it for themselves.
vocabulary builder
Vocabulary builder
  • Respond (rih SPAHND):
    • V. to react to something that has been said or done
    • Rome responded to the Hun’s invasion by sending the Roman army into battle.
    • Synonyms: answer, reply, react,
  • Publication (puhblih KAY shuhn):
    • N. book or other printed work
    • SeiShonagon is famous for her publication The Pillow Book.
    • Synonyms: declaration, writing, statement
see it remember it
See it – remember it
  • 3 Columns: term and page #, your own definition, illustration or sentence using the term.
  • Reformation (p. 504)
  • Martin Luther (p. 504)
  • Indulgence (p. 505)
  • John Calvin (p. 507)
  • Predestination (p. 508)
  • Theocracy (p. 508)
  • William Tyndale (p.509)
luther challenges the church
Luther Challenges the church
  • Read this section silently and be prepared to answer these questions:
    • What was the environment like where Luther grew up and received his education?
    • Why did Luther object to the state of the Catholic Church?
    • Why did Luther dislike the sale of indulgences?
    • Why did the pope excommunicate Luther?
the protestant movement grows
The protestant movement grows
  • Predict: Was the Protestant movement successful?
  • Read this section with your neighbor and be prepared to answer these questions:
    • Why do you think that so many people joined the Protestant movement?
    • Where did Calvin establish a theocracy?
    • How did Calvin seek to control behavior?
    • Why was John Calvin one of the most important figures of the Reformation?
after reading true or false
After reading – True or False?
  • Martin Luther was a French philosopher who urged Church reform.
  • Luther objected to the Church’s sale of indulgences, or holy relics.
  • The 95 Theses were Luther’s challenge to the authority of the Catholic Church, which he saw as corrupt.
  • When Luther refused to take back his statements, the Holy Roman Emperor had him beheaded.
  • A generation after Luther, a Protestant named John Calvin taught the idea of predestination.
  • Protestants believed that the Bible should be translated into everyday language so that people could read it for themselves.
section 2 the counter reformation
Section 2:The Counter-Reformation
  • Focus Question:
    • How did the Catholic Church respond to the Reformation?
see it remember it1
See it – remember it
  • Add to your See It – Remember It Chart
  • Counter-Reformation p. 512
  • Jesuits p. 512
  • Ignatius Loyola p. 512
  • Council of Trent p. 514
the society of jesus
The society of jesus
  • How are the Jesuits like an army?
    • They have a military organization and demand rigorous training of their members.
  • How might early saints (St. Clare and St. Francis) have reacted to the Jesuits?
    • Might have approved of faith, discipline, and helping others
  • What does the formation of the Jesuits suggest about the effect of Luther’s 95 Theses?
    • Some Catholics acknowledged that the Church needed change.
  • How did the Jesuits help restore popular support for the Catholic Church?
    • Helped the poor, taught Catholic doctrine, led spiritual lives
the council of trent
The council of trent
  • Why did Catholic leaders meet in Trent?
    • To discuss how the Church should respond to the protests of people like Luther.
  • At the Council of Trent, what did the Church change and what did it keep the same?
    • Changed some practices of priests and bishops, kept basic religious teachings
  • What rights did a person have who was arrested by the inquisition?
    • None – no legal protection
  • What steps did the Church take to end abuses and to restore its moral authority?
    • Reformed some practices; established the Inquisition; banned Protestant books.
section 3 the division of christendom
Section 3:The division of christendom
  • Focus Question:
    • How did religious conflict divide Europe?
protestant northern europe
Protestant northern europe
  • Who was mainly responsible for the founding of the Church of England?
    • King Henry VIII
  • Which war was ended by the Treaty of Augsburg?
    • A war between Catholics and Protestants in Germany
  • Why do you think Europeans went to war with one another over religious beliefs, instead of allowing freedom of religion?
  • Which areas of Europe became Protestant during the Reformation?
    • England, Scotland, and Northern Europe
catholic southern europe
Catholic southern europe
  • Who do you think was more to blame for the religious conflict in France, the Catholics or the Protestants? Why?
  • What happened in France on St. Bartholomew’s Day in 1572?
    • Thousand of Huguenots were killed
  • What was the Peace of Westphalia?
    • The treaty that ended the Thirty Years’ War
  • Do you think a treaty could have ended religious conflict in Europe? Why or why not?
  • Which part of Europe remained Catholic?
    • France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Poland-Lithuania, part of Ireland, southern Germany
section 4 the political impact of the reformation
Section 4: The political impact of the reformation
  • Focus Question:
    • How did the Reformation affect the way nations were ruled?
royal rulers increase their power
Royal rulers increase their power
  • In what ways were secular rulers more powerful than rulers had been before the Reformation?
    • They now had full power to determine the religion of their nations. They did not have to obey the pope.
  • How did the religious wars alter Europe's’ power structure?
    • They strengthened the power of secular rulers and weakened the political power of the papacy.
new ways of governing
New ways of governing
  • Why might Louis XIV have been a popular king?
  • Why might he have been unpopular?
  • How did the monarchy in England contrast with monarchies in European nations such as France, Austria, and Sweden?
  • How did the Glorious Revolution prove the power of Parliament?
  • What about the English Bill of Rights seems familiar to Americans?
new ways of governing1
New ways of governing
  • Why do you think similarities exist between the English Bill of Rights and the American Bill of Rights?
  • What political idea did Althusius write about?
    • federalism
  • What might be the connection between religious freedom and the desire for political freedom?
  • What new forms of government grew out of the practices of Protestant churches?
    • A constitutional monarchy in England; a theocracy in Geneva; eventually, federalism in the United States