January 10th, 2012 Daily Activity • Get out your packets. • Open to table in the middle of the packet and prepare to take notes. • FOR TODAY ONLY: Sit in the front 8 desks…if you mess up while in this formation, I will remove you from class. Today’s Agenda • Take notes on the cell, filling out your cell tables
Cells • Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in all living things. • Many different types of cells but we will focus on Plant and Animal cells. • Contain smaller compartments called organelles which each have a specific function.
Plasma Membrane • Also called the Cell Membrane. • Outermost portion of the cell. • Keeps all the pieces of the cell inside. • Characterization: Purse or human skin.
Cilia • Fine, whip like/hair like structures that are on the outside of the cell. • Help the cell move and helps move liquid past the surface of the cell. • Characterization: Flippers
Cytoskeleton • Provides shape and strength within the cell. • Spaces are filled with Cytoplasm. • Characterization: The inside of a pomegranate.
Cytoplasm • Fluid that fills the cell. • Made of dissolved amino acids, sugars and fatty acids the cell uses to function. • Characterization: Filling of Ding Dong, Or the Jell-O in Raspberry Jell-O.
Grana • Grana are stacks of thylakoids found in chloroplasts • Sultiple stacks of thylakoids found in chloroplasts in the cell. • The light reaction of photosynthesis takes place in the thylakoids stacked in grana • Characterization: They look like stacks of pancakes (thylakoids).
Plastids • A double membrane bound organelle involved in the synthesis and storage of food, and is commonly found within the cells of photosynthetic organisms, like plants. • Characterization: Cafeteria
Microfilaments • Long, thin, stringy proteins • Provide structure that helps the cell move, keep it’s shape, and move organelles • Helps form the cytoskeleton. • Characterization: Expansion Joints
Microtubules • Thick, Strong fibers shaped like tubes. • Move vesicles, granules and other organelles • Important for cell division. • Characterization: Conveyor Belt
Vesicles • Store or transport substances in and out of the cell. • Characterization: Mail Man
Centrioles • Help with Cell division • Important part of mitosis and meiosis. • Made of microtubules • Barrel Shaped. • Characterization: Obstetrician
Mitochondria • Provide the energy the cell needs to move, divide and contract. • Produces ATP = primary source of energy for the cell. • Characterization: Power Plant
Vacuoles • Storage Bubbles. Store nutrients and wastes until they can get transported out of the cell. • Found mostly in plants, but also found in animals. • Characterization: Storage Bin, or a Water Jug
Lysosome • Holds enzymes created by the cell. • Function is to digest things. • Work in low oxygen and pH zones • Characterization: Sewage Treatment Plant
Peroxisome • Similar to Lysosomes, however they only dissolve things that are harmful to the cell. • Require oxygen rich environment. • Mostly break down Hydrogen Peroxide into water and Oxygen • Characterization: Police
Ribosome • Used to produce proteins which are used as enzymes to support most functions of the cell. • Build chains of proteins, one amino acid at a time. • Characterization: Construction Workers
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum • Network of membranes throughout the cell. • Looks like a bunch of tubes put together. • Important for storage within the cell. Usually stores steroids. Characterization: Storage Unit
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum • Synthesis and Packaging of proteins. • Looks like a bunch of tubes put together covered in ribosomes. Characterization: Packing Plant
Golgi Apparatus/Body • Membrane Bound vesicle that packages microtubules for transportation elsewhere in the cell. • Builds Lysosomes • Characterization: Packaging Plant
Nucleus • Contains the DNA of the cell. • Controls the eating, moving and reproduction of the cell. • Characterization: The Brain
Nuclear Envelope • Holds the contents of the nucleus. • Rough ER is attached to it, they flow seamlessly together. • Characterization: Paper Towel
Nuclear Pores • Regulate passage of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. • Characterization: Holes in a strainer.
Chromosomes • Carry the genes of the cell. • Makes the cell what it is. • Characterization: The Brain
Chromatin • Genetic material made of DNA and proteins that creates Chromosomes. • Packages DNA so that it can fit in a smaller volume. • Characterization: Vacuum sealer.
Nucleolus • Produces Ribosomes • Characterization: Production Facility
Plant Cells: Different Organelles • Cell Wall • Protective “box” around the plasma membrane and the cell. • Give the cell its shape • Allow plants to grow to great heights. • Characterization: Balloon in a cardboard box.
Chloroplasts • Produce food for the cell. • Converts energy of the sun into sugars. • Characterization: Sugar Production Facility
Vacuoles • Very Large • Hold water • A plant cell changes size depending on the amount of water present in the vacuole. • Characterization: Water Balloon
Other Information • Solutions: uniform mixture of two or more substances put together. (Sugar Water) • Solute: That is dissolved (Sugar) • Solvent: That which dissolves (Water)
Types of Solutions • Isotonic: Concentration outside of the cell equals the concentration within the cell. • Water flows freely in and out of the cell.
Types of Solutions • Hypertonic: Concentration on the outside of the cell is greater than inside of the cell. • Water flows out of the cell
Types of Solutions • Hypotonic: Concentration inside of the cell is greater than the concentration outside of the cell. • Water flows freely into the cell.
Types of Solutions • Isotonic: Concentration outside of the cell equals the concentration within the cell.