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PBN Implementation in the Belgian Airspace BCAA presentation May 2016

PBN Implementation in the Belgian Airspace BCAA presentation May 2016. PBN Implementation in training Belgian Civil Aviation Authority. Ing. Jelle Vanderhaeghe. April 2016. Index:. History GNSS-technology PBN principles RNP-approaches RNP-Approach in Antwerp PBN Accuracies

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PBN Implementation in the Belgian Airspace BCAA presentation May 2016

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  1. PBN Implementation in the Belgian Airspace BCAA presentation May 2016 PBN Implementation in training Belgian Civil Aviation Authority Ing. Jelle Vanderhaeghe April 2016

  2. Index: • History • GNSS-technology • PBN principles • RNP-approaches • RNP-Approach in Antwerp • PBN Accuracies • PBN Legal references • Training RNP-approaches in ATO PBN Implementation in training Belgian Civil Aviation Authority Ing. Jelle Vanderhaeghe April 2016

  3. 1. History: • In the early days of aviation, the earliest form of areal navigation was DEAD RECKONING: looking down from the airplane and flying from known/recognizable landmarks in the area • With the set-up of airmail and passenger transport after WWI, this was a sufficient technique, but in adverse weather lead to a large number of accidents (CFIT, disorientation, hitting obstacles) • More efficient methods of navigation were required a lead to the second form of navigation: Radio Navigation

  4. 1. History: • “Radio Navigation” is a technique of navigation, based emission/reception of electro-magnetic signals (waves) between an aircraft and a ground station (beacon) • Early technology of ground based radio navigation beacons: Decca – Loran C – NDB/ADF (1940-1960’ies) • More advanced systems, still in use today: VOR – ILS – Markers – DME (1950’ies onward) • Some technology destined to be the “next best thing” never broke through: MLS was to replace ILS but was too complicated to calibrate and expensive for civil use (only 2 systems used in Heathrow status 2016)

  5. 1. History: Other navigation techniques were also applied: • Astronavigation: From the astrodome on top of an airplane, a navigator would compute the airplane’s position based on the location of known stars on the horizon, using a sextant • AHRS = Attitude Heading Reference System: INS/IRS strap down gyroscopes measure accelerations in 3D, calculating position relative to a known initial position • Flux valves: Indicating Magnetic North as accurately as possible, to avoid influences by onboard electric systems

  6. 1. History: Disadvantages of “ground station”-based Radio Navigation: • Expensive and technically sensitive ground stations • Sensitivity to environment (terrain restraints of ILS for example) • Commonly available in densely populated areas, hardly any ground stations available in scarcely populated areas (Arctic, Oceanic areas, deserts, Siberia…) • Point-to-Point or station-to-station navigation, lead to waste of fuel/time/airspace • This point-to-point navigation, was replaced by RNAV

  7. 1. History: RNAV: = “Area Navigation” • RNAV is a technique whereby an FMS (Flight Management System) of an automated airplane performs the navigation • The FMS combines one or more signals from various approved sources: Ground stations (DME/DME – VOR/DME – ILS), and airplane based sources (IRS and GNSS receivers) = Navigation in straight lines, in between beacons! • RNAV was introduced in the end of the 1970’ies and allowed automated navigation in more straight lines, between departure and destination aerodrome

  8. 1. History: RNAV: • Based on the system capabilities and accuracies of the onboard systems, there are various categories: • B-RNAV = The airplane’s navigation equipment is capable of delivering a navigation accuracy to “stay within 5 NM, left and right of track for 95% of the flight time” (= ICAO Certification specification), over a distance of 100 NM between 2 stations • P-RNAV = The airplane’s navigation equipment is capable of delivering a navigation accuracy of “1 NM for 95% of the flight time” • RNAV as a navigation concept is now succeeded by RNP PBN Implementation in training Belgian Civil Aviation Authority Ing. Jelle Vanderhaeghe April 2016

  9. 1. History: RNP: = Required Navigation Performance: • RNAV is a navigation technique that makes distinction between AIRBORNE NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT, based on the degree of accuracy they can deliver • RNP is a criterion of AIRSPACES where certain minima of navigation accuracy are applicable and must be met by the onboard navigation equipment, before an aircraft is allowed to fly into it • RNP is furthermore based on GNSS signals ONLY!

  10. 1. History: PBN: = Performance Based Navigation = NAVIGATION PROCEDURES as an alternative to point-to-point navigation techniques using ground based stations only = combination of RNAV + RNP • 3D-aspect to the navigation (continuous and engine idle descent)

  11. 1. PBN: = Principles of RNP & RNAV COMBINED + 3D-aspect (vertical aspect addedtothenavigation) • It allowsmore efficientuse of available airspace • It allowsmore efficient energy management, lessnoise, duetocontinousdescent + Engines in low regime whendescending

  12. 2. GNSS: • The main source of PBN/RNP is GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) • The navigation data originate from “Constellations”: Systems of multiple satellites, used to determine position • There are 4 Constellations in use/development today: GPS/Navstar (USA) – Globally operational Glonass (Russia) – Globally operational Galileo (Europe) – In test Beidou (China) – Operational in Asia

  13. 2. GNSS principles: • Non-geostationary satellites in various orbits around the Earth that emit a signal (carrier wave + encoded message) towards the Earth’s surface and contains the time of emission of the signal • Receivers calculate the time difference (ti) between time of emission of the signal and time of reception • Using the principle vi = xi/ti (Speed = distance/time) and know-ing the signals travel at light speed (vi = c = 300.000.000 m/s), and the delay (ti), the distance to a satellite (xi) is calculated • It takes 4 satellites to acquire an accurate 3D-fix

  14. 2. GNSS principles: A receiver calculates its position in 3D (X/Y/Z) and GNSS-time, based on the signals of multiple satellites:

  15. 2. GNSS principles: Calculating principle (FYI): A receiver calculates a position in 3D (X/Y/Z) and time, based on the following matrix of formulae: (X1 – X)² + (Y1– Y)² + (Z1– Z)² = (t1.c –CB.c)² (X2– X)² + (Y2– Y)² + (Z2– Z)² = (t2.c –CB.c)² (X3– X)² + (Y3– Y)² + (Z3– Z)² = (t2.c –CB.c)² (X4– X)² + (Y4– Y)² + (Z4– Z)² = (t2.c –CB.c)² With: X1, Y1, Z1 = 3D coordinates of satellite 1 when its signal was emitted t1 = Time when the signal was emitted by satellite 1 X, Y, Z = Position of (and calculated by) the receiver (= 3 unknown factors) CB = Clock Bias = Time error of receiver with respect to the “GNSS time” (= 4th unknown factor in the equation, as “receiver time” is very inaccurate) c = Speed of the signal = Speed of light (300.000 km/hour, or 300.000.000 m/s)

  16. 2. GNSS Constraints: • CLOCK INACCURACIES: Each minor difference (CB) between the satellite’s emission time of the signal (“GNSS-time”) and the receivers’ own “time” at that moment, is MULTIPLIED BY 300.000.000 and may lead to 100’s meters of position error… • Receivers are regarded as “the weak link” in the GNSS set-up, as they don’t have atomic clocks (with extreme high accuracy) • The time delay (CB) between GNSS-time in the satellites and receivers, is incorporated as a 4th unknown in the equations to determine receiver position and is solved mathematically • This explains the need of a 4th satellite for exact 3D-positioning, to help solve the 4th unknown factor: CB

  17. 2. GNSS Constraints: • TROPOSPHERIC INTERFERENCE: the signals originate from outer space (vacuum, no matter) and travel through the atmosphere, that becomes more dense closer to the Earth => “Bending” or Refraction of the signal (that travel in a curved pattern, not in a straight line!), when encountering denser medium (cfr • Updates of the actual situation of the troposphere in certain areas are constantly “uploaded” by ground stations to the GNSS-satellites and included in the GNSS-signals to receivers

  18. 2. GNSS Constraints: 3. The Earth is more of a “sphere” than a ball, in shape • GPS andGalileouse WGS-84 as reference, forthe Earth: itconsiderstheEarth’scircumvent as a perfect sphere • Unfortunatelythe Earth still is a “Rock” in theUniversethat is gentlyforminginto a sphere, even aftermillions of years… • Thisexplainswhyaltimetry is difficultusing GNSS-technology! WGS-84 (sphere) Real Earth (rock) Ball

  19. 2. GNSS Augmentation: • Allthedifficulties of GNSS-technologycombined, lead to a necessity (for high precisionapplications, like aviation) to AUGMENT theaccuracy of thesignal of GNSS Constellations • These augmentation systems are destinedtoincreasetheaccuracy of positiondeterminationbythe receivers of the GNSS-signals • There are various types of augmentation systems: ABAS: AirborneBasedAugmentation System SBAS: Space BasedAugmentation System GBAS: GroundBasedAugmentation System PBN Implementation in training Belgian Civil Aviation Authority Ing. Jelle Vanderhaeghe April 2016

  20. 2. GNSS - SBAS: SBAS: Space BasedAugmentation Systems EGNOS (Europe) - WAAS (USA) = 3 Geostationarysatellites per SBAS system (keepingtheirpositionrelativetothe Earth): theyprovide extra fixedposition data tothe users of GNSS receivers, toimprovetheaccuracy of positiondeterminationbythe receiver

  21. 2. GNSS - SBAS: • SBAS is used to augment GNSS signals for ALL FUTURE NON-PRECISION APPROACHES (RNP-approaches) in BELGIUM • It is IMPOSSIBLE/USELESS to certify it for CAT I/II/III (PRECISION APPROACHES) due to the reference WGS-84 that differs too much from the real Earth’s shape

  22. 2. GNSS - GBAS: GBAS: GroundBasedAugmentation Systems = Fixed GBAS receivers (whoseownposition is accuratelyknown), comparethepositioncalculatedusing GNSS-signals • Thisallowsthe GBAS receivers tocalculatecorrectionsandsendthemthroughto GNSS-receivers in thevicinity(= VDB signal)

  23. 2. GNSS - ABAS: ABAS: AirborneBasedAugmentation Systems = AAIM (Aircraft AutonomousIntegrity Monitoring) and RAIM (Receiver AutonomousIntegrity Monitoring) = Onboard systems that monitor whether or notthesignalsreceivedby a GNSS-satellite, are stillreliable or not, bycomparingthepositionscalculatedwithit, topositionobtained, usingsignals of other GNSS-satellites

  24. 2. GNSS Benefits: • Truly GLOBAL system: usable in even the most remote areas in the World, with comparable accuracy • Open source (no taxes, or fees) • Much lower maintenance costs of navigation aids for Air Navigation Service Providers (fe Belgocontrol): 1 VOR = +/-200.000 € in purchase + Annual calibration + Maintenance + Monitoring + Repair

  25. 3. PBN: • PBN = Performance BasedNavigation • After “RNAV” & “RNP” the new “key word” is PBN, although PBN is usedforEnrouteonly, approaches are stilldesignated “RNP-approach”… • PBN is implementedbyICAO DOC 9613 in 2008 • PBN requires RNAV onboardaircraft equipment + itrequires FUNCTIONALITY at any flight stage (=> Verification of INTEGRITY is very important with these navigationmethodologies!) • PBN describestherequirementsto ENTER AN AIRSPACE andto EXECUTE CERTAIN PRIVILEGES • PBN notonlyrequires NAVIGATION PERFORMANCE and INTEGRITY, but also FLIGHT CREW QUALIFICATION

  26. 3. PBN: Planning Belgocontrol SHORT TERM approach to EN ROUTE NAVIGATION: • Removal of enrouteNDB’s (MAK – Mackel, LONDI) • Replacement of enroute VOR (BUN – NIK – AFI – … ) by GNSS waypoints • Maintaining of enroute DME (combinedwith VOR -> GNSS waypoint) • Maintaining Terminal VOR (ANT – BRU – … ) This planning mayvary in thefutureand timing is uncertain at this stage

  27. 3. PBN: Planning Belgocontrol MID TERM approach to TERMINAL NAVIGATION: • RNP Approaches toequip ALL EXISTING non-precision approaches by 2018, withan RNP-overlay • Removal of the classic non-precisionground equipment • GLS (GNSS Landing System) as overlay of ILS (future of CAT II/III certification is dubious at this stage, none planned in Belgium at this stage, status 2016) LONG TERM approach to TERMINAL NAVIGATION: • Removal of ILS fullyreplacedby GLS (?)

  28. 3. PBN: Planning Belgocontrol • Certification beyond CAT I of SBAS/GBAS technology is uncertain at this stage (°2016) • Fraud of GNSS-signals (“Spoofing”), by transmission of fraudulent “bogus” satellites, pretending to generate actual GNSS-signals, is one of the big challenges in the future (impairing integrity) • “Ionospheric storms” due to intensified Solar Eruptions still is a significant threat for a World where all the landing systems would based on GNSS-technology only • Replacing all ILS antennas by GBAS is not as easy and as safe as it would appear in theory, at this stage…

  29. 4. Instrument approaches: 2 maincategories of instrument approaches today: • PRECISION APPROACHES: • Lateral guidance (≈ Localizer) andVerticalguidance(≈ GlideSlope) • ILS (and MLS & PAR) are the most common types in usetoday • Vertical minima depend on thecertification, but are 200 ft AGL, OR LESS • Certification is possiblebetween CAT I/II/III A-B-C, based on minima, RVR, or visibility criteria • Both thelocalizerandglideslope must bepurchased, maintainedandcalibratedannuallyforciviluse

  30. 4. Instrument approaches: 2 maincategories of instrument approaches today: • NON-PRECISION APPROACHES: • ONLY lateralguidance (Localizer), NO Verticalguidance (GlideSlope) • Verticalguidance is performedbythe pilot(s), is notperformedby a automatically, by a system • Minima ABOVE 200 ft AGL • Locator, VOR/DME, 2NDB are the most common types • Lateral accuracy is less (exceptLocator-approach) compa-red toprecision approaches, verticalaccuracydepends on pilot performance and cockpit workloadrequiring company procedures (OM-A)

  31. 4. RNP-Approaches: PBN Implementation in training Belgian Civil Aviation Authority Ing. Jelle Vanderhaeghe April 2016

  32. 4. RNP-Approaches: • RNP-approaches are destined to replace existing NON-PRECISION approaches • RNP approaches planned in Belgium use the SBAS-principle (EGNOS augmented) => No ground equipment required • In order to certify precision approaches to CAT I and higher, GROUND EQUIPMENT remains necessary = GLS • GLS = GPS Landing System (= GBAS-based)

  33. 4. RNP-Approaches: RNP approaches WITHOUT VERTICAL GUIDANCE: • NON-PRECISION APPROACH: RNP LNAV-Approach (“LNAV”) • LATERAL navigationonly, NO VERTICAL guidance • based on GNSS-signalsonly, no augmentation • NON-PRECISION APPROACH: RNP LP-Approach(“LP”) • LATERAL navigationonly, NO VERTICAL guidance • “Localizer Performance”-approach: GNSS signals + augmenta-tionusing EGNOS (= SBAS) • LP has higherlateralaccuracycomparedto LNAV

  34. 4. RNP-Approaches: RNP approaches WITH VERTICAL GUIDANCE: • NON-PRECISION APPROACH: RNP LNAV/VNAV-Approach (“LNAV/ VNAV”) • LNAV based on GNSS only, no augmentation • VNAV based on barometricinputs, withtemperaturecorrection • NON-PRECISION APPROACH: RNP LPV-Approach: (“LPV”) • Localizer Precision, or “LP”-approach (GNSS + EGNOS) • Withverticalguidance => LPV = LP + Verticalguidance

  35. 4. RNP-Approaches: Overview of one of the first GNSS- approach plates: • Separate identification of the ap-proach, stating the main NAV-aid: “GPS” = Non-standard nomination • VOR’s are mentioned without the frequency. The VOR is now a way point, signals originating from GPS-satellites • ESRAQ is the Initial Approach Fix (IAF)

  36. 4. RNP-Approaches: • HERNY is a waypoint also purely provided by GPS-satellite signals, not ground stations • Missed Approach Point is also (MAPt) provided by GPS • “2.8NM from RWY07”, the dis-tance is not provided by DME (not slant range but distance measure along the surface) • Final Approach Fix (FAF)

  37. Check out the date! This approach was installed, tested, approved and published by October 31st 1997 by FAA Almost 20 years later, Europe (Belgium) is finally catching up… This type of approach would be considered “LNAV” today: No mention of any augmentation No vertical guidance (step-down) 4. RNP-Approaches:

  38. 4. RNP-Approaches: RNP approaches in Europe (Situation 2016 and prospected):

  39. 4. RNP-Approaches: RNP approaches in Belgium

  40. 4. RNP-Approaches: RNP approaches in Belgium (actual situation and prospect): Safety study Implementation

  41. 4. RNP-Approaches: Goal of implementing RNP approaches in Belgium: • Intended at “Enhancing SAFETY”: Replacing of classic/non-precision approaches with more accurate andless maintenance requiringalternatives (2NDB – VOR/DME – LOC) • According tostatistics most accidents in civilaviation happen in the stages wheretheairplane is close totheground: Take-off & Landing (marginsandreaction time are reduced)

  42. 4. RNP-Approaches: Goal of implementing RNP approaches in Belgium: • Reduction of costs! AllBelgianplanned RNP approaches willbeGNSS (GPS) with Space BasedAugmentation (SBAS-principle): EGNOS • This does notrequireadditionalground equipment in thefuture(costly in purchase, sensitiveandcostly in maintenance)

  43. 5. RNP-Approach EBAW RWY 11 • Published in november 2015, became active on the 10th of December 2015 • First PBN Approach, using GPS & EGNOS (SBAS) in Belgium • When selecting the approach, check CHANNEL 48476 (if available in the cockpit-system) • ARPUR, BEVRI and AW11F are GPS waypoints: FLY-BY POINTS

  44. 5. RNP-Approach EBAW RWY 11 = 3 Approaches in 1: • LPV, High lateralprecision+ verticalguidance • LNAV/VNAV, low lateralpreci-sion, withverticalguidance • LNAV, low lateralprecision without verticalguidance

  45. 5. RNP Approach EBAW All fly the same lateral pattern! ARPUR and BEVRI are FLY-BY POINTS

  46. 6. PBN Accuracy ENROUTE

  47. 6. RNP-Approach Accuracies: Enroute: RNP 5 Missed: RNP 1 Final: RNP 0.3 Terminal: RNP 1

  48. 7. PBN Legal references: The legalreferencefor RNP Approaches are : • ICAO Doc 9613: RNP (RequiredNavigation Performance) • EASA NPA 2014-29 (D)(2): Learning Objectives (prospect) EASA ATPL/IR 3. EU 2016/539: Approved on April 6th 2016, 5th ammendment of EU 1178/2011, or EASA Air Crew Regulations

  49. 7. PBN Legal references: AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION: • The FLIGHT MANUAL OF THE AIRPLANE is the SOLE REFERENCE thatindicateswhether or notanairplane is allowedtooperate in RNP airspace andpractice/execute RNP-approaches • A built-in, EASA certified GNSS system is always a requirement • Early GNSS-receivers werenot SBAS (WAAS/EGNOS) (cap)able • Early Garmin 430 therefore are technicallyonlyabletoperformanLNAV approach • As theearly Garmin 430 didnot take into account RNP-approach applications, Garmin 430 (earlyversions) is notexplicitlyapprovedfor LNAV approaches (althoughtechnicallyable!)

  50. 7. PBN Legal references:

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