DNA Technology a Dr. Production. DNA Coiling:. Replication: DNA DNA. Occurs during S phase of mitosis in reproducing cells only DNA template is copied complimentarily and semi conservatively
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DNA Replication Fork & Nucleotide Addition Videos:
Base-pairing (substitution/ deletion-addition) Mutations
Less than 5% of the human genome actually codes for genes
20-30% human DNA
Short sequence of 5-10 bp repeat.
Half of the DNA in a species of crab has ATATATATA
Fruit fly has ACAAACT 12 million times
150-300bp scattered throughout genome, some have known functions and code for histones and rRNA
Huntington’s disease CAG repeats 6-35/38-180bp (also various dystrophies)
More than 95 percent of all DNA, was called "Junk DNA" by molecular biologists, because they were unable to ascribe any function to it. However that category is becoming smaller as scientists identify non-coding DNA as introns, transposable elements, pseudogenes, VNTRs (variable number tandem repeats and “junk”.
Chromosome #11 Flyover
proviruswhen the DNA of a virus incorporates its self into an eukaryotic cell. Can move around in the genome
reverse transcriptase enzyme that allows RNA strand to be a template of DNA
transposons “jumping genes”
One hypothesis about the junk is that these chromosomal regions are trash heaps of defunct genes, sometimes known as pseudogenes, which have been cast aside and fragmented during evolution.
Evidence for a related hypothesis suggests that the junk represents the accumulated DNA of failed viruses.
Yet another hypothesis is that the junk DNA provides a reservoir of sequences from which potentially advantageous new genes can emerge. (Junk vs trash)
As with most things in science, time and technology will tell…
Restriction enzymes/ endonucleases cut at specific palindromic sequences
5’ G/AATT C 3’
3’ C TTAA/G 5’
cleavage leaves “sticky ends”
Steps in Cloning a Gene
DNA Restriction Step by Step
Interactive Animation, Simplified
PCR2PCR3PCR4PCR Rap PCR Song
Control in Prokaryotes: http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/week6/08lacoperon.html