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Developing Leader for Change & Innovation in Tourism. 28 th June 2010. Hospitality and Tourism Labour Markets, Recruitment and Selection. Hospitality and Tourism Labour Markets.
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28th June 2010
The study of labour market characteristics is central to our understanding of HRM in action in the Hospitality and Tourism sector
The labour market can be defined as the totality of employees or those in training available for work both now and in a defined timeframe within any defined geographical and/ or vocational area.
- geographical: Paris, France, EU
- vocational: medical, ICT, Hospitality and Tourism
Economists tend to look at the total labour market within a defined area and to use crude categories to define a person’s position within it – employed, seeking employment, long-term unemployed, school leavers etc.
Leads to crude generalisations about labour markets and the match/ mismatch between available labour and skills shortages
Michael Riley’s classification of STRONG and WEAK labour markets in Hospitality and Tourism
The concept of the internal labour market is based on the idea that sets of rules and conventions form within an organisation which act as allocative mechanisms governing the movement of people and the pricing of jobs. Such rules are about promotion criteria, training opportunities, pay differentials and the evaluation of jobs, but most importantly, they are about which jobs are ‘open’ to the external labour market.
Clearly defined roles and responsibilities
Single port of entry
Specific initial training requirements
Specific in-service training requirements
Hierarchical promotion ladder
Clear workplace traditions
Strong professional ethos
Strong professional association/ trade union
Flexible roles and responsibilities
Multiple ports of entry – open access
Flexible initial training requirements
No in-service training requirements
Flexible promotion ladder
Limited workplace traditions
Weak professional ethos
Weak or no professional association/ trade union
However, generally WEAK and becoming weaker
Consequence is to
- depress wages/ remuneration
- undermine conditions/ benefits
- allow for flexible responses to market conditions and changes
- attract investment
- facilitate labour mobility at national and international levels
Low investment in training development
Low status of work
Poor recruitment/ high turnover
Skills gaps despite high unemployment
High dependence on migrant labour
Access to Hospitality and Tourism work and the skills issue
Stronger internal labour market for Hospitality and Tourism
More stable work environment
Instability/ labour turnover comes with development
Gender and religious issues
The expatriate glass ceiling
Recruitment is the process of generating a pool of capable people to apply for employment to an organization
Selection is the process by which managers and others use specific instruments to choose from a pool of applicants a person or persons most likely to succeed in the job(s), given management goals and legal requirements
The aim of both is to ensure that you can bring aboard the right person for the job, at the right price and at the right time
In what ways would your approach to recruitment differ when you have a vacancy for
A head chef
An IT manager
A local tour guide
A director of sales and marketing
Recruitment and Selection cannot be seen as ends in themselves
Must be linked to long-term HR strategy for the company
Strongly linked to labour market situation
Has implications for training, retention, future internal promotion etc.
Defining the talent/ skills you require in the business
Attracting a sound applicant pool
Selecting the most qualified staff
Getting new staff up to speed fast
Determining who’s ready for a new job (internal promotion and mobility)
Getting the most out of employees
Succession planning and management
Helping your people gain an understanding of their strengths and weaknesses
Retaining the best employees
JOB DESCRIPTION - A DOCUMENT DETAILING THE PURPOSE, MAIN DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF A PARTICULAR JOB AND ITS POSITION WITHIN THE ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE (BEARDWELL AND HOLDEN 1994: 227)
PERSON SPECIFICATION - A DOCUMENT DESCRIBING THE PERSONAL SKILLS AND CHARACTERISTICS REQUIRED TO FILL THE POSITION, USUALLY LISTED UNDER ‘ESSENTIAL’ AND ‘DESIRABLE’ HEADINGS (BEARDWELL AND HOLDEN 1994: 227)
RODGER SEVEN POINT PLAN
DEFINE - The minimum standard
FORM - The basis for rejection
ARE - Over and above the minimum
FORM - The basis for selection
Are all the items on your specification relevant to the job?
Are you reasonably sure that none of your criteria would discriminate unfairly against a group of potential candidates?
Would your person specification enable a short-listing and interviewing panel to distinguish clearly between candidates?
1. INTERNAL EXISTING EMPLOYEES
2. USING EXISTING CONTACTS
3. EXTERNAL CONTACTS
TRADE AND PROFESSIONAL JOURNALS
BUT: Word of mouth, contacts, “poaching”
The unique and differentiating promise a business makes to its employees and potential candidates
Actual delivery of the promise throughout the employee lifecycle
2. Brand development
Employee Value Proposition
Strengths/areas to improve