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Developing Leader for Change & Innovation in Tourism. 28 th June 2010. Hospitality and Tourism Labour Markets, Recruitment and Selection. Hospitality and Tourism Labour Markets.

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hospitality and tourism labour markets
Hospitality and Tourism Labour Markets

The study of labour market characteristics is central to our understanding of HRM in action in the Hospitality and Tourism sector

The labour market can be defined as the totality of employees or those in training available for work both now and in a defined timeframe within any defined geographical and/ or vocational area.

- geographical: Paris, France, EU

- vocational: medical, ICT, Hospitality and Tourism

slide4
Can include future employees such as those in training

Economists tend to look at the total labour market within a defined area and to use crude categories to define a person’s position within it – employed, seeking employment, long-term unemployed, school leavers etc.

Leads to crude generalisations about labour markets and the match/ mismatch between available labour and skills shortages

Michael Riley’s classification of STRONG and WEAK labour markets in Hospitality and Tourism

slide5
Riley (1996: 12)

The concept of the internal labour market is based on the idea that sets of rules and conventions form within an organisation which act as allocative mechanisms governing the movement of people and the pricing of jobs. Such rules are about promotion criteria, training opportunities, pay differentials and the evaluation of jobs, but most importantly, they are about which jobs are ‘open’ to the external labour market.

slide6
Strong Labour Market Characteristics

Clearly defined roles and responsibilities

Single port of entry

Specific initial training requirements

Specific in-service training requirements

Hierarchical promotion ladder

Clear workplace traditions

Strong professional ethos

Strong professional association/ trade union

slide7
Weak Labour Market Characteristics

Flexible roles and responsibilities

Multiple ports of entry – open access

Flexible initial training requirements

No in-service training requirements

Flexible promotion ladder

Limited workplace traditions

Weak professional ethos

Weak or no professional association/ trade union

slide8
Labour market status of Hospitality and Tourism is context determined

However, generally WEAK and becoming weaker

Consequence is to

- depress wages/ remuneration

- undermine conditions/ benefits

- allow for flexible responses to market conditions and changes

- attract investment

- facilitate labour mobility at national and international levels

slide9
Hospitality and Tourism labour markets in DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

Weak

Seasonal

Low wage

Low investment in training development

Low status of work

Poor recruitment/ high turnover

Skills gaps despite high unemployment

High dependence on migrant labour

slide10
Hospitality and Tourism labour markets in DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Access to Hospitality and Tourism work and the skills issue

Stronger internal labour market for Hospitality and Tourism

More stable work environment

Instability/ labour turnover comes with development

Gender and religious issues

The expatriate glass ceiling

recruitment and selection
Recruitment and Selection

Recruitment is the process of generating a pool of capable people to apply for employment to an organization

Selection is the process by which managers and others use specific instruments to choose from a pool of applicants a person or persons most likely to succeed in the job(s), given management goals and legal requirements

The aim of both is to ensure that you can bring aboard the right person for the job, at the right price and at the right time

exercise recruiting the best people talent horses for courses
Exercise: Recruiting the best people (talent) – horses for courses

In what ways would your approach to recruitment differ when you have a vacancy for

A head chef

A housekeeper

A GM

An IT manager

A waiter

A local tour guide

A director of sales and marketing

recruitment and selection not isolated activities
Recruitment and Selection: not isolated activities

Recruitment and Selection cannot be seen as ends in themselves

Must be linked to long-term HR strategy for the company

Strongly linked to labour market situation

Has implications for training, retention, future internal promotion etc.

what are your recruitment and selection challenges
What Are Your Recruitment and Selection Challenges?

Defining the talent/ skills you require in the business

Attracting a sound applicant pool

Selecting the most qualified staff

Getting new staff up to speed fast

Determining who’s ready for a new job (internal promotion and mobility)

Getting the most out of employees

Succession planning and management

Helping your people gain an understanding of their strengths and weaknesses

Retaining the best employees

slide16

JOB DESCRIPTION - A DOCUMENT DETAILING THE PURPOSE, MAIN DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF A PARTICULAR JOB AND ITS POSITION WITHIN THE ORGANISATIONAL STRUCTURE (BEARDWELL AND HOLDEN 1994: 227)

PERSON SPECIFICATION - A DOCUMENT DESCRIBING THE PERSONAL SKILLS AND CHARACTERISTICS REQUIRED TO FILL THE POSITION, USUALLY LISTED UNDER ‘ESSENTIAL’ AND ‘DESIRABLE’ HEADINGS (BEARDWELL AND HOLDEN 1994: 227)

using the personnel specification as a method of matching jobs and applicants
USING THE PERSONNEL SPECIFICATION AS A METHOD OF MATCHING JOBS AND APPLICANTS

RODGER SEVEN POINT PLAN

  • PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS
  • ATTAINMENTS
  • GENERAL INTELLIGENCE
  • SPECIAL APTITUDES
  • INTERESTS
  • DISPOSITION
  • CIRCUMSTANCES
slide18

ESSENTIAL CRITERIA

DEFINE - The minimum standard

FORM - The basis for rejection

DESIRABLE CRITERIA

ARE - Over and above the minimum

FORM - The basis for selection

slide19

POINTS TO CONSIDER IN WRITING PERSON SPECIFICATIONS

Are all the items on your specification relevant to the job?

Are you reasonably sure that none of your criteria would discriminate unfairly against a group of potential candidates?

Would your person specification enable a short-listing and interviewing panel to distinguish clearly between candidates?

slide20

RECRUITMENT METHODS

1. INTERNAL EXISTING EMPLOYEES

2. USING EXISTING CONTACTS

3. EXTERNAL CONTACTS

4. ADVERTISING/MEDIA

slide21

RECRUITMENT ADVERTISING AND MEDIA

PRESS LOCAL

NATIONAL

TRADE AND PROFESSIONAL JOURNALS

TV/ RADIO

ALTERNATIVES

INTERNET

AGENCIES

BUT: Word of mouth, contacts, “poaching”

what is it employee employer branding
What is it employee/ employer branding?
  • “The package of functional, economic, and psychological benefits provided by employment, and identified with the employing company”, Ambler & Barrow (1996)
  • A long term strategy that establishes an organisation’s identity as an employer
  • Which differentiates them from competitors in the employment market
where do you start
Where do you start?
  • The development of an employee value proposition (EVP)
  • Capturing in one statement, the sum of “everything that people experience and receive while they are part of the company”
  • It must be aligned to the overall brand and reputation
who is it for
Who is it for?
  • Potential employees – to persuade more and better applicants to apply and accept offers
  • Current employees – to reduce turnover, increase employee motivation, a sense of belonging and align behaviour to the organisation’s needs
  • Consistency of messages across both groups is vital as the organisation has to deliver what it promises
  • Projecting an unrealistic image may improve recruitment but can increase attrition
slide27

Brand strength

  • Attraction of the right candidates
  • Employee engagement and retention
  • Differentiation from competitors
  • Customer engagement and retention

Employer Brand

The unique and differentiating promise a business makes to its employees and potential candidates

Employee experience

Actual delivery of the promise throughout the employee lifecycle

+

  • Attraction of high quality employees is a competitive necessity
  • Engagement of high quality employees is a bottom line issue
slide28

1.Brand insight

2. Brand development

3. Implementation

  • Competitor analysis
  • Brand positioning vs competition
  • Understanding vision for the business and employees
  • Understanding best of the current employee experience and improvements
  • Alignment of the consumer brand/ employer brand
  • Concept development
  • Concept testing
  • Refinement and development
  • Recruitment guidelines and roll out for recruitment advertising
  • Design of internal launch process
  • Production of comms materials, internally and externally

Employee Value Proposition

Brand book

Communication strategy

Communication tools

Employee vision

Personality

Key messages

Strengths/areas to improve

employer brand benefits
Employer brand benefits
  • Significant decreases in cost per hire
  • Reduced cost of recruitment - efficiencies maximised throughout the recruitment process
  • Reduction in recruitment marketing costs over time
  • Greater numbers of higher quality applicants
  • Higher performing employees
  • Increased retention rates
  • Stronger reputation in the marketplace
  • Increased ability to attract specialist talent in a difficult market
slide30
Thank You!

Discussion

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