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Climate Change and Tourism. Dr. Ulric Trotz. Climate Change Impacts on the Caribbean, with Special Attention to Tourism and Insurance” A Symposium sponsored by the Faculty of Social Sciences, Mona Campus, UWI, Jamaica, and The Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre, Belize

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Climate Change Impacts on the Caribbean, with Special Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

A Symposium sponsored by the Faculty of Social Sciences, Mona Campus, UWI, Jamaica, and

The Caribbean Community Climate Change Centre, Belize

UWI, Mona, June 15-17, 2007

CLIMATE CHANGE & TOURISM IN THE CARIBBEAN

U. O. TROTZ - CCCCC

[email protected]


Global climate change l.jpg
GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

Recently released Fourth Assessment Report of the

IPCC concludes:

  • Unequivocal evidence that the earth’s temperature is rising and attributable to anthropogenic activities – Green House Gases

  • Rise in global temperatures of between 2 -4.5 oC.

  • Sea level rise of between 11 -77 cm.

  • Changed weather patterns

  • More intense extremes –drought ,floods

  • More intense hurricanes

[email protected]


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CLIMATE TRENDS IN THE CARIBBEAN Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Mean temp. increase for past 3 decades.

  • By end of 1970’s a significant warming detected in lower part of atmosphere.

  • Significant >> in minimum temp.(1.4 deg. since 1960).

  • 2 degree decrease in diurnal temp. range for region.

  • No. of warm days in region >>, no. of cold nights <<.

  • Frequency of droughts >> since 1960 (Cuba).

  • Frequency of occurrence of extreme events changing- Flooding & hurricane passage > in 1990’s

[email protected]


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Dependencies of Tourism in the Caribbean Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Equitable climate

  • Tourism plant-

    • Hotels and other facilities

    • Infrastructure- airports, cruise ship berths, roads, coastal protection structures etc.

    • Natural amenities – beach, reefs, wetlands

    • Access to clean and adequate supply of water

    • Access to ready supply of energy

    • Financial services especially insurance

    • Healthy environment free from diseases

    • Adequate supplies of food

    • Social harmony

[email protected]


Impacts on tourism l.jpg
IMPACTS ON TOURISM Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Direct Impacts – climate variability and changing weather patterns affect:

    • Planning of tourism programs

    • Tourist’s comfort

    • Travel decisions

      • warmer winters

      • Heat waves

      • Hurricanes

    • Tourist flows

[email protected]


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IMPACTS ON TOURISM Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Indirect – Sea Level Rise (SLR)

    • Coast and Beach erosion

    • Inundation of flood plains

    • Soil and aquifer salinisation

    • Exaggerated storm surge

    • Loss of mangroves and other coastal ecosystems.

    • At worst total submersion

[email protected]


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SLR & Storm Surge Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

[email protected]


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IMPACTS ON TOURISM Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Warmer sea temperature

    • Coral bleaching – El Nino 1998 extensive bleaching in region

    • Breakdown of reef protection

      • Amenity loss for divers and snorkelers

      • In combination with loss of mangroves, sea-grass beds impact on fisheries

    • Projected increase in frequency of extreme events floods, droughts

    • Projected increase in intensity of hurricanes

[email protected]


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IMPACTS ON TOURISM Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Increase in frequency?? And intensity of hurricanes:

    • Damage to sea-defences.

    • Damage to reefs

    • Destruction of mangroves

    • Beach and coastal erosion

    • Storm surge damage to shoreline

    • Damage to coastal infrastructure – roads, utilities,airports,

    • Damage to hotels and other tourism plant

    • Disruption of services.

[email protected]


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IMPACTS ON TOURISM Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Changing weather patterns & water supply

  • Projected decrease in precipitation

    • Less water available

    • Aquifer salinization

    • Serious consequences for water short countries – Barbados, Antigua& Barbuda

    • Inadequate aquifer recharge

[email protected]


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RESPONDING TO IMPACTS Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Developing countries responsible for negligible percentage of global GHG emissions.

  • They stand to bear the brunt of CC impacts because of their inherent vulnerability.

  • They must insist on Mitigation ( reducing GHG emissions) by the industrialized and large developing countries

  • The region must “adapt” to climate change (take proactive action that would decrease climate change impacts).

[email protected]


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SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEAN Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

Sea Level Rise

  • Building seawalls and breakwaters

  • Enhancing preservation of natural sea-defences (mangroves)

  • Relieve anthropogenic stresses on reef system

  • Beach nourishment (expensive)

  • Prohibit sand mining

  • Adjust setbacks and enforce

  • Institute a local system of marine protected area

[email protected]


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SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEAN Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

Water Sector

  • Desalination

  • Water conservation

  • Recycling grey water in the industry

  • Water harvesting

  • Low flush toilets

  • Aquifer recharge

  • Drip irrigation in agriculture

[email protected]


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SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEAN Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

Built Environment

  • Building design for efficient cooling

  • Adequate setbacks from eroding coasts

  • Locating coastal infrastructure away from eroding coasts

  • Facilities designed to accommodate future climate (revisit CUBIC)

  • Incentives (fiscal, insurance) to industry for compliance

  • Factor in increased insurance costs into resort profitability

[email protected]


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SOME INDICATIVE ADAPTATION OPTIONS FOR THE CARIBBEAN Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

Enabling Government Policy

  • Fiscal incentives for changes to built tourism infrastructure (e.g retrofitting to comply with adjusted building codes)

  • Fiscal regime to encourage sustainable construction in less vulnerable coastal zones

  • Greater public infrastructure for new tourism developments e.g. coastal defence

  • Land use planning to incorporate CC considerations

  • Retraining of displaced workers

[email protected]


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TOURISM AS A Attention to Tourism and Insurance” CONTRIBUTING CAUSE

  • GHG emissions from the sector derived from:

  • Transport

    • Road

    • Sea

    • Aviation

  • Activity specific tourism e.g. sport

  • Buildings and other tourism amenities – use of energy

  • Increased stress on natural ecosystems – coastal ecosystems, natural resource base for ecotourism

[email protected]


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DECREASING TOURISM EMISSIONS FOOTPRINT Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Encourage green tourism

  • Energy efficient building designs –cooling/light

  • Water conservation – low flush toilets etc.

  • Energy efficiency management practices

  • Renewable energy use e.g. solar water heating

  • Encourage use of energy efficient vehicles, cycling & activities that use less energy.

  • Bear in mind that some countries thinking of an aviation tax – increased airfares disincentive for travel????

[email protected]


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DJERBA DECLARATION ON TOURISM & CLIMATE CHANGE Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Call on UN, international, financial & bilateral agencies to support govts. of developing countries in their efforts to address and to adapt to the adverse effects of cc and formulate appropriate action plans.

  • Request international organisations, govts. NGOs and academic institutions to support local governments and destination management organisations in implementing adaptation and mitigation measures that respond to the specific climate change impacts at local destinations.

[email protected]


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DJERBA DECLARATION ON TOURISM & CLIMATE CHANGE Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Encourage the tourism industry to adjust their activities:

    • use more energy efficient and cleaner technologies and logistics (for transport companies, hoteliers, tour operators, travel agents and tourist guides).

  • Call on govts., bilateral and multilateral institutions to conceive and to implement sustainable management policies for

    • water resources

    • conservation of wetlands and other freshwater ecosystems

[email protected]


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DJERBA DECLARATION ON TOURISM & CLIMATE CHANGE Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Call upon govts. to encourage the use of renewable energy sources in tourism and transport companies and activities, by facilitating technical assistance and using fiscal and other incentives.

  • Encourage consumer associations, tourism companies and the media to raise consumers’ awareness of destinations and in generating markets, in order to change consumption behaviour and make more climate friendly tourism choices

[email protected]


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WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTOR Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Sustainable tourism thrust of regional industry in consonance with actions to mitigate climate change impacts

  • Improve environmental performance of industry through benchmarking &eco-labeling e.g. through Green Globe 21 – includes GHG emissions as one of nine key indicators.

  • Explore potential of tourists to participate in carbon offsetting schemes- Trees for Travelers, Climate Care, Business Enterprises for SustainableTravel.

[email protected]


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WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTOR Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • More discriminatory approach to tourism destinations – “green tourism”- win-win situations for the Caribbean.

  • Factor in climate factors into management & planning for the sector.

  • Work with regional climate science community (CCCCC) to generate relevant climate information.

[email protected]


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EXAMPLES OF RELEVANT CLIMATE INFORMATION Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Expected to answer the following e.g. :

    • What is expected change in-

      • Temperature

      • Sea level

      • Frequency of weather extremes – El Nino, La Nina

      • Frequency and intensity of hurricanes

      • Frequency in return periods of extreme events – floods , droughts

      • Patterns and intensity of precipitation.

      • Storm surge and new areas at risk

      • Flood plains

[email protected]


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WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTOR Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Partnership with government to facilitate development of an enabling policy environment for sustainable tourism.

  • Partnership with regional insurance companies, climate science community to better define future climate risks to which the region may be exposed in order to:

    • Provide a rational basis for the design of insurance instruments e.g weather derivatives, catastrophe bonds, parametric insurance.

    • Provide the basis for incentives from the financial/government/insurance sectors for “smart development in the sector”

[email protected]


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WAY FORWARD FOR THE REGIONAL TOURISM SECTOR Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

  • Actions required for sustainable tourism are in many cases identical to those required to increase the resilience of the sector to the impacts of global climate change.

  • CCCCC offers a partnership with the CTO and it’s stakeholders to provide the sector with the information and capacity necessary for it to cope effectively with this emerging global environmental threat – climate change

[email protected]


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REGIONAL TOURISM AND CLIMATE CHANGE Attention to Tourism and Insurance”

THANK YOU

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