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INTRORUCTION TO OSTEOLOGY. The Two Comedians , by Chris Peters. Kaan Yücel M.D., Ph.D . 19. November 201 3 Tuesday. . OSTEOLOGY. Gk , osteon, bone, logos, science. branch of medicine concerned with the development and diseases of bone tissue. 270 bones. 222 bones.

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slide1

INTRORUCTION TO

OSTEOLOGY

TheTwoComedians, byChrisPeters

Kaan Yücel M.D., Ph.D.

19. November2013 Tuesday

slide2

.OSTEOLOGY

Gk, osteon, bone, logos,science

branch of medicine concerned with

the development and diseases of bone tissue

270 bones

222 bones

206 bones

slide3

Skeletalsystemdividedintotwofunctional/anatomicalparts:

Axialskeleton

bones of the head, neckandtrunk

Appendicularskeleton

bones of the limbs

including those forming the pectoral (shoulder) and pelvic girdles.

80 bones

126 bones

slide4

Bone

one of the hardest structures of the animal body

calcification of its extracellular matrix

some elasticity

results from the organic matter

great rigidity

results from their lamellous structures and tubes of inorganic calcium phosphate

colorin a fresh state

pinkish-whiteexternally, deep red within.

slide5

CartilageSand Bones

  • The skeleton is composed of cartilages and bones.
  • Cartilage
  • resilient, semirigid form of connective tissue
  • forms parts of the skeleton where more flexibility is required.

articulating of bones participating in a synovial joint capped with articular cartilage

provides smooth, low-friction, gliding surfaces for free movement

slide6

CartilageSand Bones

  • The skeleton is composed of cartilages and bones.
  • Cartilage
  • resilient, semirigid form of connective tissue
  • forms parts of the skeleton where more flexibility is required.

articulating of bones participating in a synovial joint capped with articular cartilage

provides smooth, low-friction, gliding surfaces for free movement

slide7

Blood vessels do not enter cartilage avascular

  • Diffusion
  • bone /cartilage in the skeleton
  • changes as the body grows
  • younger a person the more cartilage
  • bones of a newborn are soft and flexible because mostly composed of cartilage.
slide8

CartilageSand Bones

  • The skeleton is composed of cartilages and bones.
  • The amount and kind of extracellular fibers in the matrix
  • depends on the type of cartilage.
  • Heavyweightbearing areas or areas prone to pulling forces
  • Morecollagenfibers, lessflexiblecartilage.
slide9

Functionsof cartilage

support soft tissues

provide a smooth, gliding surface for bone articulations at joints

enable the development and growth of long bones.

slide10

Typesof cartilage

1. Hyaline

most common,matrix w/ moderate amount of collagen fibers articularsurfaces of bones

2. Elastic

large number of elastic fibers external ear

3. Fibrocartilage

limited number of cells &ground substance amidst substantial amount of collagen fibers intervertebral discs

slide11

Bones function as

  • supportive structures for the body
  • protectors of vital organs
  • reservoirs of calcium and phosphorus
  • levers on which muscles act to produce movement
  • containers for blood-producing cells
slide12

TYPES OF BONES

  • according to their shape gross anatomy
  • Long bones
  • tubular humerusin the arm
  • 3)Flat bones
  • protectivefunctions
  • flat bones of the cranium protect the brain

2)Short bones

cuboidal

tarsus (ankle) carpus (wrist)

slide13

Classification of Bones

4) Irregular bones

various shapes other than long, short, or flat

bones of the face

slide14

Classification of Bones

5) Sesamoidbones

patella or knee cap

protect the tendons from excessive wear

often change the angle of the tendons as they pass to their attachments.

slide15

Long bones develop by replacement of hyaline cartilage plate endochondral ossification

  • a shaft diaphysis - two ends epiphyses
  • Metaphysis
  • a part of the diaphysis adjacent to the epiphyses.
  • Diaphysisencloses the marrow cavity.
slide16

2types of bones according to histological features

compact bone &spongy (trabecular) bone

relative amount of solid matter

#&size of the spaces they contain

slide17

All bones have a superficial thin layer of compact bone

  • around a central mass of spongy bone
  • except where the spongy boneis replaced by a medullary (marrow) cavity.
  • Spongy bone
  • found @ expanded heads of long bones +fills most irregular bones.
  • Compact bone
  • forms outer shell of all bones+shafts in long bones.
slide18

Spongy (cancellous)bone consists of thin threads of bone trabeculae

The orientation of the trabeculae is modelled by the mechanical stress to which the bone is exposed

Wolff'slaw

slide19

Architecture & proportion of compact and spongy bone

vary according to function

Compact bone

providesstrength for weight bearing.

.

Fig. 11. (a) Frontal section of the humerus head of a younger person (male, 32 years). The superior border of the medullary cavity is marked by the dotted line. The arrows point to the very thin lamella of compactbone in this region. (b) Frontal section of the humerus head of an aged person (female, 97 years). The superior border of the medullary cavity is marked by the dotted line. Notice that the very thin lamella of compactbone (arrows) is not supported by spongious osseous substance.

slide20

Bone Markings and Formations

  • Bone markings appear wherever tendons, ligaments, and fascias are attached or where arteries lie adjacent to or enter bones.
  • Other formations occur in relation to the passage of a tendon (often to direct the tendon or improve its leverage) or to control the type of movement occurring at a joint.
slide21

TEMPORALIS MUSCLE

Arisesfrom the bony floor & overlying temporal fascia

attaches

superiorly superior temporal line

inferiorlylateral &medial

surfaces of the zygomaticarch

Insertion: Coronoid process of mandible & ramus of mandible

Elevation and retraction of mandible

slide22

Linear elevations

Line (in Latin linea), crest (in Latine crista)

Cristagalli

(crest of the cock)

in the anterior part of the skull

Superior temporal line

Inferior temporal line

in the skull

slide23

Round elevations

tubercule(small eminence), protuberance (swelling)

Tubercle of a rib

External occipital protuberance

rear side of the head (skull)

slide24

Sharp elevations

spine, process

Spinousprocess of a vertebra

Styloidprocess

in the skull

slide25

Rounded articular areas

head, condyle

Head of the mandible

Condylarprocess

slide26

Depressions

fossae (small depression), groove (sulcus, long narrow depressions)

Submandibularfossa

Costalgroove

slide27

Foramen

Hole

Mentalforamen

Foramenmagnum

in theskull

slide28

Canal

a foramen having length

Optic canal

in the skull

in the orbita where the eye is located.

slide29

Meatus

acanal entering a structure

Externalauditory meatus

slide30

Vasculature and Innervation of Bones

  • Bones are richly supplied with blood vessels.
  • Veins accompany arteries.
  • Nerves accompany blood vessels supplying bones.
slide31

Accessory Bones

  • Accessory (supernumerary) bones develop when additional ossification centers appear and form extra bones.
  • Many bones develop from several centers of ossification, and the separate parts normally fuse.
  • Sometimes one of these centers fails to fuse with the main bone, giving the appearance of an extra bone.

.

slide32

Heterotopic Bones

Bones sometimes form in soft tissues where they are not normally present (e.g., in scars).

Horse riders often develop heterotopic bones in their thighs (rider's bones), probably because of chronic muscle strain resulting in small hemorrhagic (bloody) areas that undergo calcification and eventual ossification.

.

slide33

Changes in Bones &Bone Fractures

Trauma to a bone may break it. For the fracture to heal properly, the broken ends must be brought together, approximating their normal position. reduction of a fracture.

Fractures are more common in children than in adults.

.

slide34

Changes in Bones &Bone Fractures

Immediately after a fracture, the patient suffers severe local pain and is not able to use the injured part.

Deformity may be visible if the bone fragments have been displaced relative to each other.

.

slide35

OSTEOPOROSIS

decreases in theorganic & inorganiccomponents of the bone byaging

.

Bones become brittle, lose their elasticity, and fracture easily.

Bone scanning is an imaging method used to assess normal and diminished bone mass.

slide36

(BONE) SCINTIGRAPHY

metabolic activity of bone and its affinity to uptake a detectable marker

image can be captured by a scan

a wide range of indications ranging from sports related injuries to detection of metastasis (spreading of cancer) to the bones.

.

slide37

BONE DENSITOMETRY (DEXA, DXA)

enhanced form of x-ray technology used to measure bone loss

.

most often used to diagnose osteoporosis

effective in tracking the effects of treatment for osteoporosis and other conditions that cause bone loss.