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Soil Mechanics - II. Practical Portion. Experiment No. 07. Determination of Relative Density of Soil. Class Outlines. Determination of Field Density Sand Replacement Method Determination of Lab Density Standard Proctor Compaction Test Modified Proctor Compaction Test.

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soil mechanics ii

Soil Mechanics - II

Practical Portion

experiment no 07
Experiment No. 07

Determination of Relative Density

of Soil

class outlines
Class Outlines

Determination of Field Density

Sand Replacement Method

Determination of Lab Density

Standard Proctor Compaction Test

Modified Proctor Compaction Test

experiment no 07 a
Experiment No. 07(a)

Determination of Field Density

of Soil Using Sand Cone Method

designation
Designation

ASTM: D 1556-64 (1982)

AASHTO: T 191-93 (1996)

apparatus
Apparatus
  • Sand-cone apparatus .
  • Tray with hole
  • Balance
  • Stove or oven.
  • Hand chisels for digging test hole
  • Container for moisture samples (tin cans).
  • Container for retaining excavated soil
apparatus1

Excavated test hole

Apparatus

ASTM, AASHTO sand-cone apparatus BS sand replacement apparatus

procedure
Procedure

Determine the volume of the bottle or cylinder and attachments including the volume of the valve.

Determine the bulk density of the sand to be used in the field test

Determine the weight of sand required to fill the funnel.

Determine the density of soil in place

calculations
Calculations
  • Calculate the volume of the density apparatus as follows:

V1 = G

Where, V1 = Volume of density apparatus, in cubic centimeters.

G = Grams of water required to fill the apparatus.

  • Calculate the density of the sand as follows:

W = Grams of sand required to fill the apparatus.

V1 = Volume of apparatus in cubic centimeters as determined in 1st step

  • Calculate the in-place density of the soil as follows:
calculations1
Calculations

Where,

V = Volume of test hole or volume of the excavated soil.

W2 = Weight of sand used to fill the test hole and funnel.

W3 = Weight of sand in funnel

W1 = Weight of soil excavated from the test hole

Calculate the dry density of the soil in place as follows:

Dry density of soil =

Where, ‘m’ is the moisture content determined as follows from the sample taken at step (4-g.).

experiment no 07 b
Experiment No. 07(b)

Determination of Lab Density

of Soil Using Standard Proctor Compaction Test

designation1
Designation

ASTM: D 698-70

AASHTO: T 99-97

apparatus2
Apparatus

Mold with detachable collar and detachable base plate .

Rammer with a mass of 2.5-kg. (5.5–lb)

Weighing Balance

Drying oven .

Straightedge for trimming the soil

Sieve No. 4 (4.75-mm.)

Containers for moisture content determination

apparatus3
Apparatus

Compaction mold and hammers

procedure1
Procedure

Take 3-kg. soil passing 4.75-mm. (No.4) sieve .

Thoroughly mix the selected sample with sufficient water to dampen it to approximately 4-percent below the expected optimum moisture content .

Compact the soil in the mold with collar attached, in three approximately equal layers to give a total compacted depth of 125-mm. (5-in) .

Following compaction of each of the first two layers, any soil adjacent to the mold walls that has not been compacted or extends above the compacted surface shall be trimmed and be evenly distributed on top of the layer

procedure2
Procedure

Compact each layer by 25 uniformly distributed blows of the rammer dropping free from a height of 305-mm. (12-in.) above the level of the soil .

After compaction, remove the collar, trim the compacted soil even with the top of the mold, and determine the weight of mold and soil in kilograms or pounds .

For weight recorded in kilograms, multiply the weight of the compacted specimen and the mold, minus the weight of the mold, by 1060, and record the result as the wet density of the compacted soil, γb in kilograms per cubic meter .

procedure3
Procedure

For weight recorded in pounds, multiply the weight of the compacted specimen and the mold, minus the weight of the mold, by 30, and record the result as wet density of the compacted soil, γb, in pounds per cubic foot .

Remove the material from the mold and take a representative sample to find the moisture content

Thoroughly break the molded specimen and add to remaining portion of the test sample .

Add water to increase the moisture content of the soil by one to two percent and repeat the above procedure for each increment of water added

procedure4
Procedure

Continue this series of determinations until there is either a decrease or no change in the wet density of compacted soil .

If the soil particles are fragile and grain size will be reduced by repeated compaction, separate and new sample shall be used in each test repetition

Calculate the moisture content and the dry density of the compacted soil for each trial, and determine the Moisture-Density Relationship as follows .

moisture density relationship
Moisture-Density Relationship

The dry densities of the soil shall be plotted as ordinates and the corresponding moisture content as abscissas .

γd max

Dry density

mopt

Water content

procedure5
Procedure

Optimum Moisture Content:

The moisture content corresponding to the peak of the moisture-density curve is termed the “Optimum Moisture Content” of the soil.

Maximum Density:

The dry density of the soil at optimum moisture content is termed “maximum density”

observations calculations
Observations & Calculations

Observations for moisture content determination

observations calculations1
Observations & Calculations

Observations for determination of Density = Weight/Volume (kg/m3)

experiment no 07 b1
Experiment No. 07(b)

Determination of Lab Density

of Soil Using Modified Proctor Compaction Test

designation2
Designation

ASTM: D 1557-70

AASHTO: T 180-97

apparatus4
Apparatus

Mold with detachable collar and detachable base plate .

Rammer 4.54-kg. (10-lb.)

Weighing Balance

Drying oven .

Straightedge for trimming the soil

Sieve No. 4 (4.75-mm.)

Containers for moisture content determination

apparatus5
Apparatus

Compaction mold and hammers

procedure6
Procedure

All the steps are same as in Standard Proctor Compaction Test except;

Mould will be filled in five (5) equal layers instead of three(3).

Weight of the Rammer used will be 4.54 kg (10lb) instead of 2.5kg (5.5lb).

Height of drop of the Rammer will be 18-in instead of 12-in.