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“He speaks fine; he doesn’t need speech therapy! What is speech and language? PowerPoint Presentation
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“He speaks fine; he doesn’t need speech therapy! What is speech and language?

“He speaks fine; he doesn’t need speech therapy! What is speech and language?

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“He speaks fine; he doesn’t need speech therapy! What is speech and language?

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  1. “He speaks fine; he doesn’t need speech therapy!What is speech and language? Presented by: D’Anna Nowack M.S. CCC/SLP

  2. Dysarthria Apraxia Aphasia Dysphagia Cognitive/Linguistic A speech problem A speaking problem A language problem A swallowing problem A thinking problem Speech-Language Therapy

  3. Speech • Speech output is comprised of individual sounds or phonemes • Breath Support • Volume • Vocal quality • Articulation • Rate • Prosody

  4. Dysarthria • Flaccid - LMN lesion • Spastic - Bilateral UMN lesion • Mixed - Combined spastic & flaccid • Ataxic - Cerebellar • Hypokinetic - Extrapyramidal lesion • Hyperkinetic - Extrapyramidal lesion

  5. Assessment • Single words, multisyllabic, sentences, conversation • Intelligibility - the degree to which the speaker’s intended message is understood by the listener • Context dependent

  6. Apraxia • Effortful, groping articulatory movements, attempts at self-correction • Difficulty initiating utterances • Highly inconsistent - on repetition of same utterance

  7. Oral Difficulty producing oral movements Verbal Difficulty producing words Oral & Verbal Apraxia

  8. Dysarthria versus Apraxia

  9. What is Language? • an organized set of symbols used for communication • a combination of the reception, integration, and expression of information • an accepted, symbolic system that expresses thoughts, intentions, experiences, and feelings

  10. Expressive Verbal Written Receptive Auditory Reading Language Modalities

  11. What is Aphasia? • A communication impairment that affects comprehension or production of language • Difficulty in interpretation and formulation of language symbols • Expressive vs. Receptive • Fluent vs. Nonfluent

  12. Types of Aphasias • Broca’s • Wernicke’s • Conduction • Anomic • Transcortical Sensory • Transcortical Motor • Global

  13. Neuroanatomy • Broca’s • Posterior third frontal convolution, immediately anterior to primary motor cortex • Brodmann’s area 44 • Wernicke’s • Posterior part of superior temporal gyrus, first temporal convolution • Auditory association cortex

  14. Neuroanatomy • Conduction • posterior sylvian region • Transcortical Motor • anterior cerebral artery territory of dominant hemisphere, rostral part of Broca’s area • Transcortical Sensory • Posterior temporal-parietal junction area off dominant hemisphere

  15. Neuroanatomy • Anomic • Widely variable - 60% have dominant hemisphere parietal-temporal junction lesions • angular gyrus or posterior part of second temporal convolution • Global • Extensive territory of supply of middle cerebral artery

  16. Fluent continuous flow of words grammatical appropriate inflection content can contain meaning or be full of paraphasias and circumlocutions Nonfluent halting, effortful output/production that results in incomplete, fragmented sentences Fluent vs. Nonfluent

  17. Expressive impairment of production of output Receptive disturbance in the perception and understanding of language Expressive vs. Receptive Deficits

  18. Expressive Errors • Paraphasic errors: semantic/verbal phonemic/literal • Circumlocutions • Neologisms vs. jargon

  19. Semantic Fork/Knife Brush/Comb Phonemic Nuzzle/Muzzle Prograther/Protractor Expressive Deficits

  20. Receptive Deficits • Auditory comprehension 2-unit 3-unit multi-unit • Reading comprehension oral comprehension

  21. Levels of Auditory Comprehension

  22. Cookie Theft

  23. What is Cognition? • knowledge of the world • information stored, retrieved, and used

  24. Orientation Memory Attention Impulsivity Disinhibition Carry-over Self-monitoring Problem-Solving Reasoning Organization/Planning Attention to detail Judgment Insight Cognitive/Linguistic Areas