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America as a World Power. Chapter 10, Section 4. Roosevelt the Peacemaker. Japanese ask Roosevelt to arrange peace talks with Russia to end Russo-Japanese War Nobel Peace Prize 1906. Roosevelt and Sakhalin Island. Panama Canal. Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901
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America as a World Power Chapter 10, Section 4
Roosevelt the Peacemaker • Japanese ask Roosevelt to arrange peace talks with Russia to end Russo-Japanese War • Nobel Peace Prize 1906
Panama Canal • Hay-Pauncefote Treaty of 1901 • Grt. Brtn. gives U.S. exclusive right to build canal through Cent. Am. • 1903 Congress and President buy the Panama route for $40 million • Nov. 18, 1903 • Panama and U.S. sign treaty: • $10 million “down payment” • $250,000 annual rent in Canal Zone • Payments to begin in 1913
Constructing the Canal • One of the world’s greatest engineering feats • Diseases • Yellow fever and malaria • +5,600 workers died • 1904-1914 • Total cost • $380 million • U.S.- Lat. Am. relations shaky for decades
Roosevelt Corollary • U.S. would now use force to protect its economic interests in Latin America • “Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far.” –Teddy Roosevelt
Mexican Revolution • 1911 Mexican peasants (Madero) overthrew military dictator (Diaz) • General Huerta executed Diaz (supported by Americans) & took control of gov’t. • Wilson refused to recognize Mexican gov’t.
Intervention in Mexico • 1914 U.S. marines occupy Veracruz • 18 Americans and +200 Mexicans died during invasion • Huerta regime collapses • Nationalist leader forms gov’t. • Wilson recognizes Mexican gov’t.
Rebellion in Mexico • Francisco “Pancho” Villa • Emiliano Zapata • Both men led revolts against Mexican gov’t. by attacking American civilians
Chasing Villa • Wilson ordered to capture Villa dead or alive • 150,000 guards along Mexican border • WWI forced U.S. to seek peace with southern border • Obregon came to power and ended civil war
U.S. Foreign Policy Goals of 20th Century • 1st goal • Expanded its access to foreign markets in order to ensure the continued growth of the domestic economy • 2nd goal • U.S. built a modern navy to protect its interests abroad • 3rd goal • U.S. exercised its international police power to ensure dominance in Latin America