Case-control study. Introduction for case-control study. Patients with a disease (case) are compared with controls who do not have the disease. 以‘有病’及‘無病’做為主要分組 估計‘暴露因子 (exposure)’ 或‘ suspected factors’ 的相對危險性 (relative risk) 。 優點： cheaper than cohort study
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Sample size : 參考 page 82
Case : control ratio 約1:1 – 1:4
OR = ad / bc ; 95% CI = OR
OR = s / t ; 95% CI = OR
Assessment of whether of an observes association is likely to be directly causal and not the result of unrecognized confounding depends upon several consideration: