Aviation Security . 警總 ⇒ 解嚴 ⇒ 開放天空 ⇒ 911 …. Aviation Security. ◈ Introduction ◈ Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation ◈ Regulatory Movement ◈ International Influences ◈ Review of Security technologies ◈ APB Aviation Security. 1. Introduction.
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◈Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation
◈Review of Security technologies
◈ APB Aviation Security
◈ it is important to realize a fundament difference between
Safetyusually refers to measures taken against the threat of an
Securityrefers to protection from threats motivated by hostility
◈ While the end objective of safety and security is to minimize risk by preventing injuries and loss of lives and property!
◈ The core safety practices are designed to prevent unintentional acts whereas security practices are designed to avert intentionalacts.
◈ 一般而言，將空中運輸安全分為飛航安全(flight safety)與航空保安(aviation security)兩主要部分。
◈ The first attack on civil aviation dates back to 1930 when Peruvian revolutionaries seized a Fokker F-7 aircraft in South America.
☞ little attention and never resulted in anyinternational effort
to combat potential threats to international aviation
◈ Until the Mid-1960s, airlines and airportsgave security matters little attention.
☞ Low-technology security applications, such as airport fences,
were intended as a safety measure to separate aircraft from
wildlife rather thanterrorists.
◈ However, attackers against civil aviation rose rapidly in the 1967-1976 decade.
☞while there were only 32 worldwide hijackingsfrom 1961 through1967, there were 290hijacking attempts (successful and unsuccessful) worldwide during the following 4 years after 1968.
◈ In U.S., from 1930 to 1967, only 12 hijackings were attempted, the climax occurred in 1969 when 33 regularly scheduled airliners were hijacked.
☞ led to much money being spent onsecurity by the air carriers and the FAA on x-ray systems, magnetometers, training programs for screening personnel, and air marshals.
◈ Consequently, the threat of hijacking in U.S. and the actual incidences of hijackings diminishedover time.
◈ From Fig.1, all three major forms of attacks against on airliners display almost the same trend over time, rising steeply in 1967-1976decade and then declining.
◈ From 1947-1996 there were 1,098 total incidents of attacks on airliners, compared with 129 attacks on airports and 249 attacks on airline offices.
☞With regard to themodes of attack, hijackings were by far the most common form of attack on commercial aviation. Hijackings constituted 87% of all incidents on airliners during this 50-year period. ( the other were bombings, armed assault,…)
◈ While the number of attacks was on the decline, the severity of these attacks demonstrated a different trend.
☞ the decade of the1980s was a disastrous one for aviation, confirmed the existence of dangerous trend toward greater violence against air transportation. Overall, 25 planes were sabotaged by explosives, causing 1,237 casualties.
◈ By comparison, there were 650deaths in the 1970s and 286 deaths in the 1960s.
☞ things cooled off in the 1990s only the events of September 11, 2001, when 3,247(including onboard passengers, crew, and people on the ground) were killed in four separate terrorists acts on the same day
◈ The increase in severity of aviation attacks were the results of terrorists changing their tactics and philosophies and making use of new technologies.
☞ more sophisticated and lethal technologies, such as automatic weapons and deadly plastic explosives, innocuous-looking suitcases and radio into lethal bombs,…
◈ The character of airline hijackings also changed from lone hijacker (personal or political point ) of early 1960s to the 1970s as an organized terrorist tactic.
◈ Prior to the formation of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) in 2001, for protecting the users against terrorist and other criminal acts belonged to the FAA.
2.Air Carrier Security
3.Anti-hijacking or Air Transportation Security Act of 1974
4. Air Carrier Standard Security Program (ACSSP)
5.Indirect Air Carrier Security
6. Air Marshal Program
7.Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990
8. Antiterrorism Act of 1996
9.White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, 1996
10. Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001
Under FAR (Federal Aviation Regulations) Part 107 (1972), airport were intend to prevent inadvertent entry of unauthorized persons or vehicles to the aircraft movement area and prevent damaging collisions with wildlife other than birds through fencing or other means
Improve or establish protection against unauthorized access to air operations areas
Establish authorized access to air operations areas through a suitable identification system
Identify vehicles operating in air operations areas
2.Air Carrier Security
Part 121 (1972), air carriers were required to adopt and implement a screening system that would detect weapons and explosives in carry-on baggage or on the person of passengers
Prevent or deter unauthorized access to its aircraft
Ensure that a responsible agent or representative of the certificate holder would check in baggage
Prevent cargo and checked baggage from being loaded aboard its aircraft unless they were handled in accordance with the certificate holder’s security procedures
3.Anti-hijacking or Air Transportation Security Act of 1974
this Act promulgated in 1974, contained two titles: rules requiring carriers to institute 100% screening of passenger and carry-on items, and at least 1 law enforcement officer at each passenger checkpoint during boarding and preboarding
TitleⅠ, Anti-hijacking Act (punitive provisions for hijackers and security standards for foreign air transportation and services)
TitleⅡ, Air Transportation Security Act (security regulations for U.S. airports and carriers)
4.Air Carrier Standard Security Program (ACSSP)
Application of theregulations varied greatly across the airlines. Regulatoryrequirements were not implemented consistently across the industry.
In early 1975 the Air Transportation Association sought to work out a Standard Security Program (ACSSP), which attempted to bring some structure to the diverse interpretations of the new rules.
In1976, all but a few of the carriers accepted the program, which is mandatory today.
5. Indirect Air Carrier Security
FAR 109 regulations (1979) govern indirect air carrier security and provide additional protection against criminal activity.
prescribes aviation security rules governing each air carrier, including air freight forwarders, food service, and cooperative shipping associations engaged indirectly in air transportation of goods
each indirectly air carrier is required to have a security program designed to prevent or deter the unauthorized introduction of explosives or incendiary devices into any package cargo
6. Air Marshal Program
this statute authorized Federal Air Marshals to carry firearms on board and to make arrest without warrant
theincrease hijackingresulted in the establishment of the Anti-Hijacking Program of the Federal Aviation Administration, one element of this program was the federal Air Marshal Program
FAA’s armed federal Air Marshal Program aboard international flights for U.S. air carriers.
In 1985, Congress enacted Public Law 99-83, the International Security and Development Cooperation Act, which established the explicit statutory basis for the FAA-Federal Air Marshal Program
7. Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990
this Act implemented the most comprehensive, far-reaching legislative initiative designed to improve all aspects of aviation security
It mandates many regulatory actions affecting several agencies, requires new reports, creates new organization and staffing requirements, and empowers the FAA to promote and strengthen aviation security, more focused research and development (R&D) program.
8. Antiterrorism Act of 1996
an amendment required the FAA to ensure that the same security measures (not merely similar ones) used by U.S. carriers on routes into or from the U.S. would be implemented by non-U.S. air carriers on those routes
9. White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, 1996
the commission set aggressive agenda for reviewing the safety of the air transportation system and issued initial recommendations
Special attention was given to an action plan to deploy new high-technology machines (explosives detection, human factors, aircraft container hardening, trace explosives detectors) to detect the most sophisticated explosives.
The working group’s recommendations were passed on to the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, had a major impact and given the force of law and financing by ensuring Congressional action
10.Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001
the 911 terrorist events of 2001 changed the face of aviation forever while fundamentally modifying the thinking and approach to security
On November 19, 2001, Congress enacted the Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA), which established the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) as an operating administration within the Department of Transportation (DOT)
The measure, was expected to dramatically improve airport security by promoting the development and use of cutting-edge technologies, such as biometric authentication, Global Positioning System applications, enhanced communication systems, and database integration protocols.
◈ The cost-benefit ratio of current U.S. security efforts is insular. There is little or no overall economic benefit to improving aviation security inconsistently.
If the terrorist were to acquire shoulder-launched missiles (a perfectly realistic scenario), present security measures would become pointless.
◈ National and international security concerns arise because such economic and technological integration is not accompanied by political integration.
There is no central authority in world politics, much less one with power to enforce its mandates.
◈ the security measures produced two obvious economic effects:
1. increased costs, arise from such procedures as increased inspections, patrol, expandedscreening measures, overtime payrolls, and enforcing new parking restrictions.
2. loss of revenue, allowing only ticketed passengers past screening points reduces concession revenues, and packing lot closures reduce cash revenues.
◈ Critical point out that it would be better to spend the money on intelligence to get an accurate fix on real threat.
U.S. carriers frequently rely on the host government to provide security at least to the degree that outlined in ICAO Annex 17.
◈ The International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 gives the FAA authority to assess security measures at foreign airport in accordance with ICAO Annex 17 standards.
The U.S. DOT also issues public warnings about the level of security at foreign airports if it falls below international standards.
◈ Commercial aviation can be protected from the threat of explosives in two ways:
By Preventing explosives from reaching aircraft (by using explosives detection technologies)
By mitigating the effects of an explosive by protecting the aircraft from an onboard explosion (via aircrafthardening and hardened containers)
☞ Combined these two approaches may provide the best protection of commercial aviation
◈ Imaging Technologies
imaging technologies work either by sensing the natural radiationemitted by the human body (passive imaging) or by exposing subjects to a specific type of radiation and then measuring the radiation reflected by the body (active imaging)
☞ it can detect metallic weapons or plastic explosives by sensing the differences in reflected radiation between the human body and the weapons or explosives
X-ray units used for inspecting carry-on luggage and people use low-dosage, low-energy radiation. Higher-dosage units are used for checked baggage.
☞ newer X-ray device display images in different colors according to the level of energyradiation, thickness, density, to differentiate among materials are metallic, organic, and so on.
Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging
based on the principle that any object not at absolute zero temperature will emit electromagnetic energy at all wavelengths
Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging
uses low-energy, low-intensity reflected x-rays to scan an object to generate an image, this technique require radiation, which raises some health concerns.
◈ Sample imagine systemscurrently being marketed
1. American Science and Engineering (AS&E)
BodySearch Personnel Inspection System
AS&E’s 101ZZ system
PalletSearch Cargo Inspection System
3. Secure 1000 Nicolet Imaging System/Teledyne
4. Portable X-Ray Imaging System
◈ Trace detection technologies
based on the directchemical identification of either particles of explosive material or vapor-containing explosive material.
☞ two distinct steps in trace detection are sample collection and chemical identification, more commonly used for baggage screening (as opposed to people screening) in aviation security
Sample: 1. Thermedics EGIS 3000 2. Barringer Ionscan 400
3.Ion Track Itemiser4.CTX-5000SP
◈ Explosive Detection Systems
includes any device or system that remotely senses a physical or chemical property of an object to detect the presence of an explosive concealed in a container
☞ the critical performance metrics for explosives detection equipment include the probability ofdetectionPd, the probability of false alarmPfa, and the throughput rate
Samples: 1. CTX 9000 InVision Technologies
2. Vivid CT30
3.Examiner 3DX 6000
◈ Metal Detectors
are used broadly around all the airports and the most important source of security, involve metal detection portals for screening passengers and x-ray imaging systems for hand-carried baggage
☞ metal detectors vary from portals to handheld systems depend on the application, and not as effective as other systems, and their weakness is that they do not detect metals incapable of being magnetized, (newer generationcan search for ferrous and nonferrous objects)
Samples: 1. Body Orifice Security Scanner (B.O.S.S.)
2. Sentrie Omni
3.PM200HD (Portal Type)
Biometrics technology devoted to identifying individuals by using biological traits and use of physiological or behavioral characteristics to determine or verify identity (so that security personnel can focus on smaller category“high-risk”passengers)
☞ Biometric systems are basically of two types: verification and recognition.
Biometric measurement variables include:
Fingerprint Facial recognition Voice recognition
Iris scan Retina Scan Hand geometry
Signature scan Keystroke scan Palm scan
Samples: FaceIT Identix Corporation
HandKey Recognition System
◈ Strengthening Aircraft and Baggage Containers
another approach to aviation security is to try to strengthenaircraft frames and to plan redundancies in vital systems such as controls, electrical systems, and hydraulics, to mitigate the effects of bomb blasts in flight
◈ Cockpit Door Reinforcement
On January 10, 2002, the FAA published new standards to protect cockpits from intrusion and small-arms fire or fragmentation devices, such as grenades.
◈ Computer-Assisted Passenger Screening System (CAPS)
about in 1997 several major carriers developing and testing CAPS, which permits the airline’s computer reservation system to use information in the passenger name record to exclude most passengers from further security measures
◈ High-technology detection methods can yield results, but it is clear that these results are expensive and are not perfect.
◈ There are alternative technological and tactical approaches to airport security.
☞One might be able to divert some level of resources from hardware applications toward improved intelligence gathering to intercept terrorists long before they arrive at the airport.
☞ From an economic pointof view, the use of resources to gather intelligence is more attractive than elaboratesecurity technology.
◈ In spite of all that has been accomplished to ensure the safety and security of the traveling public, the terrorist, always has the upper hand. While we must protect every element of the transportation system at all times, the terrorist has the luxury of being the only one who know the time, the place, and the method of the next attack.
◈ 機場安檢-- 係依據依國家安全法第四條及其施行細則第19條與台灣地區民航機場安全檢查作業規定等相關法規，對出、入境及過境旅客、行李、貨物(含空廚)安全檢查與航空器清艙安檢作業，兼負防劫機、防破壞、防偷渡、防走私及防滲透等維護飛安(出境安檢)、地安(入境安檢)之任務!
2. 重視國際航線疏忽國內航線安檢作業 (國際普遍通病)!
1.1981.08.31, Middle East Airlines，B720客機載運5公斤炸藥於利比亞迫降炸毀，82人身亡。
2.1987.11.28, South African Airways，B747臺北起飛客機貨艙非法載運危險物品飛行途中貨艙起火，墬毀印度洋，159人喪身。
3.1987. Korean Air，B707客機因客艙攜帶危險物品，飛行途中爆炸，115人喪生。
4.1988. 12.21， Pan Am，B747客機因貨艙爆炸墬毀270人喪生。
5.1989.09.19, Union des Transport Aerins, DC-10因前貨艙危險物品飛行途中爆炸，171人喪生。
6.1989. 11.27, 哥倫比亞航空B727因機內炸彈引爆，107人死亡。
7.1994.12.11, Philippine Airlines,B727因客艙發生爆炸，造成1人死亡。
8.1995.07.12, Miline Bay Air Gumey, DHC-6 Twin Otter 於巴布亞紐幾內亞，因客艙行李失火墜毀，15人喪生。
9.1996.05.11, ValuJet Airlines(超值航空)，DC-9客機因攜帶氧氣瓶未依危險物品運送標準執行，致起飛不久前艙失火110人死亡。
10.1997.07.09, TAM Brazil, Fokker F-100, 因客艙底下發生爆炸，1乘客被彈出機外死亡。
11.1999.08.24, Uni-Airlines, MD-90客機花蓮機場降落滾行時客艙爆炸起火，1人死亡。(1989大華航空迫降台中CCK)
☞ 1956 第一版《IATA航空運送限制物品規則》實施。
☞1976 國際民航組織(International Civil Aviation Orgnization,
(Technical Instructions, TI)簡稱《技術指令》。
☞ Dangerous Goods Regulations, DGR, 簡稱《空運規則》所依據的危險物品國際運輸法規有三方面來源：
2.聯合國『國際原子能總署』(International Atomic Enrergy Agency,
☞ 我國航空運輸在危險物品規範上，僅在《 民用航空法》第43條提及，而『危險物品空運管理辦法』也僅草案(主因為母法尚在修正階段)？目前尚無對於危險物品明確的管理規範，皆參考國際航空運輸協會(IATA)之規範。
◈ 三、危險物品空運限制( 安檢訓練教材)
☞ 乘客或組員之攜帶行李(托運行李、隨身行李、隨身物品)，不論何種攜帶方式，有兩項物品絕對禁止行李運輸 !
☞原則上危險物品不可郵寄，若符合規定少量危險之 1.感染性物質(托運人危險物品申報單) 2.乾冰(托運人危險物品申報單) 3.放射性物質(活度(activity)不超過空運規則中『微量包裝漸活度限定表』之1/10)，則可依規定程序運送。