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Aviation Security . 警總 ⇒ 解嚴 ⇒ 開放天空 ⇒ 911 …. Aviation Security. ◈ Introduction ◈ Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation ◈ Regulatory Movement ◈ International Influences ◈ Review of Security technologies ◈ APB Aviation Security. 1. Introduction.

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Aviation Security

警總 ⇒解嚴⇒開放天空⇒911…


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Aviation Security

◈Introduction

◈Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation

◈Regulatory Movement

◈International Influences

◈Review of Security technologies

◈ APB Aviation Security


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1. Introduction

◈ it is important to realize a fundament difference between

Safetyusually refers to measures taken against the threat of an

accident

Securityrefers to protection from threats motivated by hostility

or malice

◈ While the end objective of safety and security is to minimize risk by preventing injuries and loss of lives and property!

◈ The core safety practices are designed to prevent unintentional acts whereas security practices are designed to avert intentionalacts.


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飛航安全與航空保安

◈ 一般而言,將空中運輸安全分為飛航安全(flight safety)與航空保安(aviation security)兩主要部分。

☞飛航安全:指處理及防範於飛航作業過程中,因相關作業因素之影響而造成飛航意外事故。

☞航空保安:指於航機上及機場或機場周邊之犯罪行為並危及飛航安全及正常飛航秩序之行為。(如劫機及破壞事件)


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2. Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation

◈ The first attack on civil aviation dates back to 1930 when Peruvian revolutionaries seized a Fokker F-7 aircraft in South America.

☞ little attention and never resulted in anyinternational effort

to combat potential threats to international aviation

◈ Until the Mid-1960s, airlines and airportsgave security matters little attention.

☞ Low-technology security applications, such as airport fences,

were intended as a safety measure to separate aircraft from

wildlife rather thanterrorists.


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Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation

◈ However, attackers against civil aviation rose rapidly in the 1967-1976 decade.

☞while there were only 32 worldwide hijackingsfrom 1961 through1967, there were 290hijacking attempts (successful and unsuccessful) worldwide during the following 4 years after 1968.

◈ In U.S., from 1930 to 1967, only 12 hijackings were attempted, the climax occurred in 1969 when 33 regularly scheduled airliners were hijacked.

☞ led to much money being spent onsecurity by the air carriers and the FAA on x-ray systems, magnetometers, training programs for screening personnel, and air marshals.


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Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation

◈ Consequently, the threat of hijacking in U.S. and the actual incidences of hijackings diminishedover time.


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Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation

◈ From Fig.1, all three major forms of attacks against on airliners display almost the same trend over time, rising steeply in 1967-1976decade and then declining.


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Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation

◈ From 1947-1996 there were 1,098 total incidents of attacks on airliners, compared with 129 attacks on airports and 249 attacks on airline offices.

☞With regard to themodes of attack, hijackings were by far the most common form of attack on commercial aviation. Hijackings constituted 87% of all incidents on airliners during this 50-year period. ( the other were bombings, armed assault,…)

◈ While the number of attacks was on the decline, the severity of these attacks demonstrated a different trend.

☞ the decade of the1980s was a disastrous one for aviation, confirmed the existence of dangerous trend toward greater violence against air transportation. Overall, 25 planes were sabotaged by explosives, causing 1,237 casualties.


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Review of Attacks on Civil Aviation

◈ By comparison, there were 650deaths in the 1970s and 286 deaths in the 1960s.

☞ things cooled off in the 1990s only the events of September 11, 2001, when 3,247(including onboard passengers, crew, and people on the ground) were killed in four separate terrorists acts on the same day

◈ The increase in severity of aviation attacks were the results of terrorists changing their tactics and philosophies and making use of new technologies.

☞ more sophisticated and lethal technologies, such as automatic weapons and deadly plastic explosives, innocuous-looking suitcases and radio into lethal bombs,…

◈ The character of airline hijackings also changed from lone hijacker (personal or political point ) of early 1960s to the 1970s as an organized terrorist tactic.


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3. Regulatory Movement

◈ Prior to the formation of the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) in 2001, for protecting the users against terrorist and other criminal acts belonged to the FAA.

1.Airport Security

2.Air Carrier Security

3.Anti-hijacking or Air Transportation Security Act of 1974

4. Air Carrier Standard Security Program (ACSSP)

5.Indirect Air Carrier Security

6. Air Marshal Program

7.Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990

8. Antiterrorism Act of 1996

9.White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, 1996

10. Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001


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Regulatory Movement

1.Airport Security

Under FAR (Federal Aviation Regulations) Part 107 (1972), airport were intend to prevent inadvertent entry of unauthorized persons or vehicles to the aircraft movement area and prevent damaging collisions with wildlife other than birds through fencing or other means

 Improve or establish protection against unauthorized access to air operations areas

 Establish authorized access to air operations areas through a suitable identification system

Identify vehicles operating in air operations areas


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Regulatory Movement

2.Air Carrier Security

Part 121 (1972), air carriers were required to adopt and implement a screening system that would detect weapons and explosives in carry-on baggage or on the person of passengers

 Prevent or deter unauthorized access to its aircraft

 Ensure that a responsible agent or representative of the certificate holder would check in baggage

Prevent cargo and checked baggage from being loaded aboard its aircraft unless they were handled in accordance with the certificate holder’s security procedures


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Regulatory Movement

3.Anti-hijacking or Air Transportation Security Act of 1974

this Act promulgated in 1974, contained two titles: rules requiring carriers to institute 100% screening of passenger and carry-on items, and at least 1 law enforcement officer at each passenger checkpoint during boarding and preboarding

TitleⅠ, Anti-hijacking Act (punitive provisions for hijackers and security standards for foreign air transportation and services)

 TitleⅡ, Air Transportation Security Act (security regulations for U.S. airports and carriers)


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Regulatory Movement

4.Air Carrier Standard Security Program (ACSSP)

Application of theregulations varied greatly across the airlines. Regulatoryrequirements were not implemented consistently across the industry.

 In early 1975 the Air Transportation Association sought to work out a Standard Security Program (ACSSP), which attempted to bring some structure to the diverse interpretations of the new rules.

 In1976, all but a few of the carriers accepted the program, which is mandatory today.


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Regulatory Movement

5. Indirect Air Carrier Security

FAR 109 regulations (1979) govern indirect air carrier security and provide additional protection against criminal activity.

 prescribes aviation security rules governing each air carrier, including air freight forwarders, food service, and cooperative shipping associations engaged indirectly in air transportation of goods

 each indirectly air carrier is required to have a security program designed to prevent or deter the unauthorized introduction of explosives or incendiary devices into any package cargo


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Regulatory Movement

6. Air Marshal Program

this statute authorized Federal Air Marshals to carry firearms on board and to make arrest without warrant

theincrease hijackingresulted in the establishment of the Anti-Hijacking Program of the Federal Aviation Administration, one element of this program was the federal Air Marshal Program

 FAA’s armed federal Air Marshal Program aboard international flights for U.S. air carriers.

 In 1985, Congress enacted Public Law 99-83, the International Security and Development Cooperation Act, which established the explicit statutory basis for the FAA-Federal Air Marshal Program


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Regulatory Movement

7. Aviation Security Improvement Act of 1990

this Act implemented the most comprehensive, far-reaching legislative initiative designed to improve all aspects of aviation security

 It mandates many regulatory actions affecting several agencies, requires new reports, creates new organization and staffing requirements, and empowers the FAA to promote and strengthen aviation security, more focused research and development (R&D) program.

8. Antiterrorism Act of 1996

an amendment required the FAA to ensure that the same security measures (not merely similar ones) used by U.S. carriers on routes into or from the U.S. would be implemented by non-U.S. air carriers on those routes


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Regulatory Movement

9. White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, 1996

the commission set aggressive agenda for reviewing the safety of the air transportation system and issued initial recommendations

 Special attention was given to an action plan to deploy new high-technology machines (explosives detection, human factors, aircraft container hardening, trace explosives detectors) to detect the most sophisticated explosives.

 The working group’s recommendations were passed on to the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, had a major impact and given the force of law and financing by ensuring Congressional action


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Regulatory Movement

10.Aviation and Transportation Security Act of 2001

the 911 terrorist events of 2001 changed the face of aviation forever while fundamentally modifying the thinking and approach to security

 On November 19, 2001, Congress enacted the Aviation and Transportation Security Act (ATSA), which established the Transportation Security Administration (TSA) as an operating administration within the Department of Transportation (DOT)

 The measure, was expected to dramatically improve airport security by promoting the development and use of cutting-edge technologies, such as biometric authentication, Global Positioning System applications, enhanced communication systems, and database integration protocols.


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4. International Influences

◈ The cost-benefit ratio of current U.S. security efforts is insular. There is little or no overall economic benefit to improving aviation security inconsistently.

 If the terrorist were to acquire shoulder-launched missiles (a perfectly realistic scenario), present security measures would become pointless.

◈ National and international security concerns arise because such economic and technological integration is not accompanied by political integration.

 There is no central authority in world politics, much less one with power to enforce its mandates.


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International Influences

◈ the security measures produced two obvious economic effects:

1. increased costs, arise from such procedures as increased inspections, patrol, expandedscreening measures, overtime payrolls, and enforcing new parking restrictions.

2. loss of revenue, allowing only ticketed passengers past screening points reduces concession revenues, and packing lot closures reduce cash revenues.


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International Influences

◈ Critical point out that it would be better to spend the money on intelligence to get an accurate fix on real threat.

 U.S. carriers frequently rely on the host government to provide security at least to the degree that outlined in ICAO Annex 17.

◈ The International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 gives the FAA authority to assess security measures at foreign airport in accordance with ICAO Annex 17 standards.

 The U.S. DOT also issues public warnings about the level of security at foreign airports if it falls below international standards.


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5. Review of Security technologies

◈ Commercial aviation can be protected from the threat of explosives in two ways:

 By Preventing explosives from reaching aircraft (by using explosives detection technologies)

 By mitigating the effects of an explosive by protecting the aircraft from an onboard explosion (via aircrafthardening and hardened containers)

☞ Combined these two approaches may provide the best protection of commercial aviation


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Security technologies- Imaging Technologies

◈ Imaging Technologies

imaging technologies work either by sensing the natural radiationemitted by the human body (passive imaging) or by exposing subjects to a specific type of radiation and then measuring the radiation reflected by the body (active imaging)

☞ it can detect metallic weapons or plastic explosives by sensing the differences in reflected radiation between the human body and the weapons or explosives

 X-Ray Imaging

X-ray units used for inspecting carry-on luggage and people use low-dosage, low-energy radiation. Higher-dosage units are used for checked baggage.


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Security technologies- Imaging Technologies

☞ newer X-ray device display images in different colors according to the level of energyradiation, thickness, density, to differentiate among materials are metallic, organic, and so on.

 Passive Millimeter-Wave Imaging

based on the principle that any object not at absolute zero temperature will emit electromagnetic energy at all wavelengths

 Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging

uses low-energy, low-intensity reflected x-rays to scan an object to generate an image, this technique require radiation, which raises some health concerns.


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Security technologies-Imaging Technologies

◈ Sample imagine systemscurrently being marketed

1. American Science and Engineering (AS&E)

BodySearch Personnel Inspection System

AS&E’s 101ZZ system

PalletSearch Cargo Inspection System

2.Heimann System

3. Secure 1000 Nicolet Imaging System/Teledyne

4. Portable X-Ray Imaging System


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Security technologies-Trace Detection Technologies

◈ Trace detection technologies

based on the directchemical identification of either particles of explosive material or vapor-containing explosive material.

☞ two distinct steps in trace detection are sample collection and chemical identification, more commonly used for baggage screening (as opposed to people screening) in aviation security

 Sample: 1. Thermedics EGIS 3000 2. Barringer Ionscan 400

3.Ion Track Itemiser4.CTX-5000SP


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Security technologies-Explosive Detection Systems(EDSs)

◈ Explosive Detection Systems

includes any device or system that remotely senses a physical or chemical property of an object to detect the presence of an explosive concealed in a container

☞ the critical performance metrics for explosives detection equipment include the probability ofdetectionPd, the probability of false alarmPfa, and the throughput rate

 Samples: 1. CTX 9000 InVision Technologies

2. Vivid CT30

3.Examiner 3DX 6000


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Security technologies-Metal Detectors

◈ Metal Detectors

are used broadly around all the airports and the most important source of security, involve metal detection portals for screening passengers and x-ray imaging systems for hand-carried baggage

☞ metal detectors vary from portals to handheld systems depend on the application, and not as effective as other systems, and their weakness is that they do not detect metals incapable of being magnetized, (newer generationcan search for ferrous and nonferrous objects)

 Samples: 1. Body Orifice Security Scanner (B.O.S.S.)

2. Sentrie Omni

3.PM200HD (Portal Type)


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Security technologies-Biometrics

◈ Biometrics

Biometrics technology devoted to identifying individuals by using biological traits and use of physiological or behavioral characteristics to determine or verify identity (so that security personnel can focus on smaller category“high-risk”passengers)

☞ Biometric systems are basically of two types: verification and recognition.

Biometric measurement variables include:

Fingerprint Facial recognition Voice recognition

Iris scan Retina Scan Hand geometry

Signature scan Keystroke scan Palm scan

 Samples: FaceIT Identix Corporation

HandKey Recognition System


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Security technologies(another approach )

◈ Strengthening Aircraft and Baggage Containers

another approach to aviation security is to try to strengthenaircraft frames and to plan redundancies in vital systems such as controls, electrical systems, and hydraulics, to mitigate the effects of bomb blasts in flight

◈ Cockpit Door Reinforcement

On January 10, 2002, the FAA published new standards to protect cockpits from intrusion and small-arms fire or fragmentation devices, such as grenades.

◈ Computer-Assisted Passenger Screening System (CAPS)

about in 1997 several major carriers developing and testing CAPS, which permits the airline’s computer reservation system to use information in the passenger name record to exclude most passengers from further security measures


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Non-technological Approaches

◈ High-technology detection methods can yield results, but it is clear that these results are expensive and are not perfect.

◈ There are alternative technological and tactical approaches to airport security.

☞One might be able to divert some level of resources from hardware applications toward improved intelligence gathering to intercept terrorists long before they arrive at the airport.

☞ From an economic pointof view, the use of resources to gather intelligence is more attractive than elaboratesecurity technology.

◈ In spite of all that has been accomplished to ensure the safety and security of the traveling public, the terrorist, always has the upper hand. While we must protect every element of the transportation system at all times, the terrorist has the luxury of being the only one who know the time, the place, and the method of the next attack.


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6. APB Aviation Security

◈ 機場安檢-- 係依據依國家安全法第四條及其施行細則第19條與台灣地區民航機場安全檢查作業規定等相關法規,對出、入境及過境旅客、行李、貨物(含空廚)安全檢查與航空器清艙安檢作業,兼負防劫機、防破壞、防偷渡、防走私及防滲透等維護飛安(出境安檢)、地安(入境安檢)之任務!

◈從統計資料說明兩項事實:

1. 劫機破壞者最後豋機的比例最高,主要目的係藉以掩人耳

目,引開安檢人員及航空公司職員注意力,匆忙趕搭機方

式登機成功!

2. 重視國際航線疏忽國內航線安檢作業 (國際普遍通病)!


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APB Aviation Security

◈ 《危險物品空運管理辦法草案》

☞『危險物品』:乃指該物品或物質以航空器載運時,可能明顯的危害人體的健康、安全、財產或對環境造成損害,並符合本辦法危險物品清單或危險物品分類之物品或物質。

◈ 危險品具有易爆、易燃、有毒、腐蝕和放射特性等物質,不但包括明顯危險性物質,同時也包括一般常見物品!依據國際空運協會(IATA)所制訂之《危險物品規則》,共分為九大類:


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國際重大危險物品運輸意外事件

◈自1980-2003年因危險物品造成航空器重大意外事件:

1.1981.08.31, Middle East Airlines,B720客機載運5公斤炸藥於利比亞迫降炸毀,82人身亡。

2.1987.11.28, South African Airways,B747臺北起飛客機貨艙非法載運危險物品飛行途中貨艙起火,墬毀印度洋,159人喪身。

3.1987. Korean Air,B707客機因客艙攜帶危險物品,飛行途中爆炸,115人喪生。

4.1988. 12.21, Pan Am,B747客機因貨艙爆炸墬毀270人喪生。

5.1989.09.19, Union des Transport Aerins, DC-10因前貨艙危險物品飛行途中爆炸,171人喪生。

6.1989. 11.27, 哥倫比亞航空B727因機內炸彈引爆,107人死亡。


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世界重大危險物品運輸意外事件

◈自1980-2003年因危險物品造成航空器重大意外事件:

7.1994.12.11, Philippine Airlines,B727因客艙發生爆炸,造成1人死亡。

8.1995.07.12, Miline Bay Air Gumey, DHC-6 Twin Otter 於巴布亞紐幾內亞,因客艙行李失火墜毀,15人喪生。

9.1996.05.11, ValuJet Airlines(超值航空),DC-9客機因攜帶氧氣瓶未依危險物品運送標準執行,致起飛不久前艙失火110人死亡。

10.1997.07.09, TAM Brazil, Fokker F-100, 因客艙底下發生爆炸,1乘客被彈出機外死亡。

11.1999.08.24, Uni-Airlines, MD-90客機花蓮機場降落滾行時客艙爆炸起火,1人死亡。(1989大華航空迫降台中CCK)


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航空運輸危險物品管理

◈ 一、國際航空危險物品管理

☞1950年以前大多完全禁止運送危險物品(當時稱為限制性物品Restricted Articles)基於商業需求,國際空運協會初始於1952年成立『限制性物品工作小組』籌畫制訂危險物品的國際性航空運輸規則

☞ 1956 第一版《IATA航空運送限制物品規則》實施。

☞1972 IATA危險物品(空運)規則中,採聯合國之危險物品標貼系統

☞1976 國際民航組織(International Civil Aviation Orgnization,

ICAO) 提倡以政府力量介入危險物品的國際運輸。

☞1977 ICAO危險物品專案小組舉行首次會議,起草芝加哥國際民航會

議第十八號附約,以及附帶之《航空運輸危險物品技術指令》

(Technical Instructions, TI)簡稱《技術指令》。

☞1982 IATA發行第二十四版的空運規則,從此完全符合ICAO國際民航

會議的第十八號附約,及技術指令之所有規定。


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航空運輸危險物品管理

☞ Dangerous Goods Regulations, DGR, 簡稱《空運規則》所依據的危險物品國際運輸法規有三方面來源:

1.『聯合國危險物品運輸專家委員會』所頒佈的《危險物品運輸準則—

模式規範》

2.聯合國『國際原子能總署』(International Atomic Enrergy Agency,

IAEA) 為安全運輸所訂定之《放射性物質安全運輸規則》。

3.『國際民航組織』依航空運輸特性,發展之《危險物品處理規則》。

◈ 二、國內航空危險物品管理

☞ 我國航空運輸在危險物品規範上,僅在《 民用航空法》第43條提及,而『危險物品空運管理辦法』也僅草案(主因為母法尚在修正階段)?目前尚無對於危險物品明確的管理規範,皆參考國際航空運輸協會(IATA)之規範。


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航空運輸危險物品管理

◈ 三、危險物品空運限制( 安檢訓練教材)

☞ 除依『空運規則』外,各國及航空公司基於自身因素考量,也可對危險物品加以限制,這種限制稱為『變異條款』(variation)

1. 禁止航空運輸之物品與物質:

☞危險性大之危險物品在『空運規則』之「航空禁運表」或「危險物品表」列舉251項絕對禁止航空運輸的物質與物品。

☞ 絕對禁止航空運輸之物品與物質,是指在正常的航空運輸狀況下會爆炸、起危險反應、釋出危險程度的熱量、或散發出毒性腐蝕性或易燃性的氣體或蒸氣的物質或物品。


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航空運輸危險物品管理

2. 航空行李中危險物品

☞ 乘客或組員之攜帶行李(托運行李、隨身行李、隨身物品),不論何種攜帶方式,有兩項物品絕對禁止行李運輸 !

1.裝有諸如鋰電池或菸或材料等危險物品之手提箱、現金

箱等?

2.含有刺激性或使人喪失行為能力之諸如荳蔻粉、胡椒粉

噴具!

3. 一般貨物中隱藏的危險物品

4. 少量危險物品之航空運輸

☞原則上危險物品不可郵寄,若符合規定少量危險之 1.感染性物質(托運人危險物品申報單) 2.乾冰(托運人危險物品申報單) 3.放射性物質(活度(activity)不超過空運規則中『微量包裝漸活度限定表』之1/10),則可依規定程序運送。


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國內危險物品管理問題探討

◈政策法規面

1.對於危險物品規範不足

2.航空貨運承攬業、航空公司、航警局

權責劃分不明

3.未明定違反危險物品運送規則的罰則

4.危險物品檢查員專業證照問題


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國內危險物品管理問題探討

◈安檢面

1.大型盤櫃之安檢問題

2.安檢裝備老舊與不足

3.安檢人員之教育訓練

4.安檢人員之證照問題


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結論建議

◈法規訂定 (政策)

相關法規訂定已有進步,唯大多屬程序上之制定,對於完整的管理目標與標準作業程序之訂定,仍需進一步整體規劃 !

◈ 航空保安(經費-公私部門)

1.911後新購置『熱中子貨櫃安檢儀器』(射源不足需多次轉

盤不同角度檢測!

2.CTX-5000 (熱中子)雖功能齊全(所費不貲)但檢測效率不佳!

3.Heimann System在預算限制(價格標)競標下減少許多原有功

能!

4.國內線托運行李集中安檢缺失(業者經濟考量)!


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結論建議

◈專業認證

1.危險物品之安檢設備與人員之教育訓練,值得民航主管機關

加以重視,以提升國內飛安水準。(僅取得輻射操作認證)

2.安檢人員計畫培訓及專責制度建立,不隨其他勤務更替或抽

調必備人力 !(祥和專案→人仰馬翻!)

◈經驗法則

1.機器設備功能有限,經驗傳承尤其重要。惟實務上走私毒品

大多經由線報及手檢查獲!

2. (安檢觀察勤務重點)

(查緝走私績效圖檔)


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補充資料

◈國際販毒組織為逃避台灣海關及安檢查緝,刻意改變毒品走私入境方式,將高純度海洛因夾帶運往查緝毒品較嚴格的日本及台灣等國,以『人入境、貨不通關』方式,將毒品暫存關棧,在出境運毒!(因過境旅客暫存關棧的轉機行李,除非航空公司提出檢查要求,否則海關及安檢單位接不予檢查,形成治安死角!)

◈ 一般市面上所稱的『毒品』,其實是醫學上的『藥物DRUG』但在法律學上稱為毒品,因嚴重危害人類健康及社會秩序,因此列為違禁品。並依其成癮性、濫用性及對社會危害性分為三級:

第一級:海洛因、嗎啡、鴉片、古柯鹼及相類製品。

第二級:罌栗、古柯、大麻、安非他命…

第三級:西可巴比妥、異戊巴比妥、納洛芬…

◈國內查獲以安非他命、海洛因、大麻、搖頭丸(MDMA)和K他命最多。

◈FM2、Ketamine、GHB 在歐美稱為『三大約會強姦藥』均有安眠、嗜睡、及麻醉效果,不可不慎!


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補充資料

◈ 搖頭丸:

1.為亞甲雙氧甲基安非他命之簡稱,英文檢寫MDMA,俗稱快樂丸、忘我、亞當、狂喜及綠蝴蝶,係目前學生開派對最鍾愛的藥物之一,而且不定時有不同廠牌、顏色藥丸推出,以不同圖樣顯示品牌高低,其中以藥粒印有海豚、貓頭鷹、XO最紅!

2.原本是由英國莫克(Merck)研發(1921)作為收斂血管作用之止血劑!八0年代曾為心理治療使用,作為協助個案放鬆療程之補助品。

3.係一種中樞神經性奮劑,口服一片後20-40分鐘服用者好像在腦中開出一條『快樂通道』而情緒興奮、不停說話、食慾下降、體力活動遽增,60-90分鐘會HIGH到最高點(如沒音樂就好像得重感冒,渾身不舒服,但音樂一起來就像渦輪增壓引擎,根本不知累),三小時藥力消散後,情緒180度急轉低落,出現嚴重抑鬱感!因而還想再度使用,故與吸食海洛因沒有大區別!(腦血管破裂死亡案例)

4.尤其許多青少年以為只要在週末放鬆使用不會成癮?但研究顯示,只要用過一次樂丸,就會造成腦部結構改變,會讓人退化、變呆,且會在身體留下『記憶』,藥劑在體內殘留與累積而上癮。


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