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Establishing Effective Inclusion Programs: Challenges & Opportunities Jim Wright www.interventioncentral.org. http://www.jimwrightonline.com/ gulfport.html. 1. Defining ‘Inclusion’. 4. Working Effectively With Adults. 5. Assessing Skills of Inclusion Students.

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Establishing Effective Inclusion Programs: Challenges & OpportunitiesJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org



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1. Defining ‘Inclusion’

4. Working Effectively With Adults

5. Assessing Skills of Inclusion Students

2. Creating Flexible Learning Environments

6. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Your Inclusion Program

3. Individualizing Instruction forSpecial Needs

Inclusion Workshop Agenda



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Domains of School Inclusion Program?

Physical Mobility/Behavioral Independence

Different from Peers

Similar to Peers

Social Skills

Different from Peers

Similar to Peers

Academic Skills

Different from Peers

Similar to Peers


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Example: Two Inclusion Students Program?

  • STUDENT A-Robbie: Cerebral Palsy: Uses a wheel-chair and augmentative communication device. Cognitive potential is high average.

  • STUDENT B-Stacey: Downs Syndrome: Enjoys athletic activities. Cognitive potential is considerably lower than peers.


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B Program?

B

B

A

A

A

Domains of School Inclusion: Grade 4

Physical Mobility/Behavioral Independence

Different from Peers

Similar to Peers

Social Skills

Different from Peers

Similar to Peers

Academic Skills

Different from Peers

Similar to Peers


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B Program?

B

B

A

A

A

Domains of School Inclusion: Grade 8

Physical Mobility/Behavioral Independence

Different from Peers

Similar to Peers

Social Skills

Different from Peers

Similar to Peers

Academic Skills

Different from Peers

Similar to Peers


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Definitions of ‘Inclusion’ Program?

Education which is inclusive involves placement in the home school and in the general education environments(s) with appropriate supports, aid(e)s, and curricular adaptations designed individually for each student eligible for special education services.

From Project CHOICES: Illinois State Board of Education http://www.projectchoices.org/


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Definitions of ‘Inclusion’ Program?

The outcome of quality education whereby a child with disabilities receives individualized services and supports in the school they would attend if they did not have a disability… True inclusive schooling can only be achieved in the general education classroom with same age peers without disabilities, but it cannot be achieved by placement alone.

From TASH (formerly The Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps) http://www.tash.org/


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Components of ‘Inclusion’ Program?

Fully inclusive schools are characterized by:

  • A single set of standards that embraces all students

  • A broad umbrella of standards that encompasses supplemental educational needs, including functional or independent living skills

  • Teaching which uses heterogeneous groupings and a variety of age-appropriate instructional strategies based upon students' learning needs

  • High expectations for all students

From TASH (formerly The Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps) http://www.tash.org/


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Components of ‘Inclusion’ Program?(Cont.)

Fully inclusive schools are characterized by:

  • Teachers who treat each student as a uniquely important individual and who are knowledgeable about research based practices that assist students with diverse learning needs to learn;

  • Program philosophy which emphasizes the value of diversity, multiculturalism, social justice, and belonging for everyone

From TASH (formerly The Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps) http://www.tash.org/


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Components of ‘Inclusion’ Program?(Cont.)

Fully inclusive schools are characterized by:

  • Access for all students to campuses and classrooms, including co-curricular and extra-curricular activities, that are free from prejudice and other physical and psychological barriers;

  • Comprehensive, sensible and culturally competent curricula which are effective for the full range of learners; and,

  • Opportunities for all secondary school students to participate in community and/or job skill development programs which do not impact negatively on school participation

From TASH (formerly The Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps) http://www.tash.org/


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Mainstreaming: Program? Selective placement of special education students in one or more general-education classes.

Underlying assumption:

  • Student must earn opportunity to be placed in regular classes by demonstrating an ability to "keep up" with the work assigned by the regular classroom teacher.

From Wisconsin Education Association Council http://www.weac.org/


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Inclusion: Program?Expresses commitment to educate each child, to the maximum extent appropriate, in the school and classroom he or she would otherwise attend.

Underlying assumptions:

  • Support services should come to the child (rather than moving the child to the services)

  • Requires only that the child will benefit from being in the class –but does not have to keep up with other students

From Wisconsin Education Association Council http://www.weac.org/


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Full Inclusion: Program?Full inclusion means that all students, regardless of handicapping condition or severity, will be in a regular classroom/program full time. All services must be taken to the child in that setting.

Underlying assumption:

  • The child always should begin in the regular environment and be removed only when appropriate services cannot be provided in the regular classroom.

From Wisconsin Education Association Council http://www.weac.org/


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Examples of When a Child Might Benefit from Instruction Outside of General-Education Setting

  • To learn Braille, American Sign Language, or other communication system

  • To work on reading skills when student’s abilities are severely delayed when compared to those of peers

  • To master daily living skill such as riding public transportation


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Physical Inclusion Outside of General-Education Setting

Academic Inclusion

Social Inclusion

3 Dimensions of Inclusion


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TASH: Outside of General-Education SettingThe Association for Persons With Severe Handicaps

http://www.tash.org


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Ten Tips for Special Educators Outside of General-Education Setting

6


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Creating Flexible Learning Environments to Outside of General-Education SettingAccommodate All StudentsJim Wrightwww.interventioncentral.org


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CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum Outside of General-Education Setting

http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/


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Physical Vs. Cognitive Access to Curriculum Outside of General-Education Setting

“Students need both physical and cognitive access in order to succeed in the general curriculum.”

CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum www.cast.org


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Physical Access to Curriculum Outside of General-Education Setting

“…physical access to the curriculum includes sensory and motor access (such as the ability to see text and images, hear sound and speech, and manipulate materials and expressive tools). Individuals with physical or sensory disabilities may encounter barriers when using traditional materials such as books, paper and pencil, keyboards, audiotapes without text equivalents, or videos lacking captions or video descriptions.”

CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum www.cast.org


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Cognitive Access to Curriculum Outside of General-Education Setting

“Examples of cognitive access to the general curriculum include the ability to understand assignments, plan and execute approaches to tasks, use materials effectively, comprehend content presented in various media, organize work, understand and use feedback, and express ideas effectively.”

CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum www.cast.org


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Cognitive Access to Curriculum Outside of General-Education Setting(Cont.)

“All students, but particularly students with learning disabilities, attention deficits, developmental disabilities, or affective difficulties, may encounter [cognitive] barriers when using traditional materials or digital materials if they are not designed in a flexible manner.”

CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum www.cast.org


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Barrier: Fixed Medium of Presentation Outside of General-Education Setting

“The single most significant barrier in the general curriculum is the fixed medium of presentation. For example, printed materials… cannot be modified from their original format, nor can the information provided be enhanced or made more supportive for diverse learners. Videotapes, audiotapes, and even some software are also generally "fixed" in their presentation, making them accessible and appropriate learning tools for some, but not for all.”

CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum www.cast.org


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Solution: Digitize Content Outside of General-Education Setting

“[Putting learning materials into] digital form is necessary because it provides the underlying flexibility needed for customization. Text, images, sound, and video, when digitized, can be converted to other forms for accessibility to different learners at the teacher's or learner's request. This ability to be transformed, and to be presented in multiple forms simultaneously, is unique to digital media.”

CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum www.cast.org


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Turning Print into Flexible Digital Products Outside of General-Education Setting

Word Processing Software w/Spell Check & Grammar Check

Display in Web Browser to Be Accessed by JAWS

Scanned to Digital Text

Print (Paper Text)

Text-To-Speech


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Barrier: Attitudes About Customizing Learning Materials Outside of General-Education Setting

“Assistive technologies [such as wheelchairs, adaptive switches to control their environment, and speech synthesizers] will always have a role in the education of learners with disabilities, and UDL will not eliminate the need for personal assistive devices. However, exclusive emphasis on assistive technologies places the burden of adaptation on the learner, not the curriculum. The idea that students must procure or ‘be prescribed’ special individual tools whenever they cannot use standard curricula undermines learning for everyone.”

CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum www.cast.org


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Solution: Provide Outside of General-Education SettingAll Learners With Flexible Content & Choices for Access

“Exclusively print-based tools and methods, uncaptioned videos and software, images and posters that lack text descriptions, all create a culture of failure for many of our children.

UDL curriculum materials assume diverse learner goals, learner profiles, and assessment methods, and therefore are designed with flexibility as the keystone.”

CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum www.cast.org


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Deriving UDL Solutions to Barriers: Example Outside of General-Education Setting

CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum www.cast.org


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UDL Solutions: Example Outside of General-Education Setting

CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum www.cast.org


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Deriving UDL Solutions to Barriers Outside of General-Education Setting

CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum www.cast.org


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UDL Class Learning Profile: Example Outside of General-Education Setting

CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum www.cast.org


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UDL Class Learning Profile: Student Strengths & Needs Outside of General-Education Setting

CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum www.cast.org


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UDL Class Learning Profile Outside of General-Education Setting

CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum www.cast.org


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How Does Your Classroom Work? Outside of General-Education Setting

13


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Ten Tips for Assistive Techies Outside of General-Education Setting

10


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CAST National Center on Accessing the Curriculum Outside of General-Education Setting

http://www.cast.org/teachingeverystudent/


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Negotiating to Achieve a ‘Win-Win’ Situation Outside of General-Education Setting

  • Use objective criteria. When parties negotiate, they should rely on objective criteria instead of subjective opinions whenever possible to resolve disagreements. For example, teachers on a building Disciplinary Committee disagree with the principal about the severity of behavioral issues in the school. After some discussion, the two sides agree to analyze office disciplinary referrals to tabulate the frequency and severity of student misbehavior.


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Ten Tips for General Educators Outside of General-Education Setting

4


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Ten Tips for Paraeducators Outside of General-Education Setting

5


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Ten Tips for Caregivers Outside of General-Education Setting

9


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