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Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus. Body Mass Index. BMI is a definition of the degree of adiposity. It is weight (kg)/height (m) 2. Classification or Overweight and Obesity. Underweight ‹ 18.5 Normal 18.5-24.9 Overweight 25.0-29.9 Obesity, Class I 30.0-34.9

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body mass index
Body Mass Index
  • BMI is a definition of the degree of adiposity.
  • It is weight (kg)/height (m)2
classification or overweight and obesity
Classification or Overweight and Obesity
  • Underweight ‹ 18.5
  • Normal 18.5-24.9
  • Overweight 25.0-29.9
  • Obesity, Class I 30.0-34.9
  • Obesity, Class II 35.0-39.9
  • Extreme Obesity, Class III ≥ 40
factors leading to obesity
Factors Leading to Obesity
  • Physiologic
  • Metabolic
  • Genetic
    • Glucose intolerane
    • Insulin resistance
    • Hypertension
    • hyperlipidemia
obesity factors cont
Obesity Factors Cont’
  • Excess Energy Intake
  • Inadequate Physical Activity
metabolic syndrome mets
Metabolic Syndrome MetS

Criteria: Must have three or more symptoms

waist circumference exceeding 40”/35”

serum triglycerides 150mg/dl

HDL less than 40mg/dl…50mg/dl

Blood pressure 135/85 or higher

serum glucose 110mg/dl or higher

slide8

In 1990, among states participating in the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 10 states had a prevalence of obesity less than 10% and no state had prevalence equal to or greater than 15%.

  • By 2000, no state had a prevalence of obesity less than 10%, 23 states had a prevalence between 20–24%, and no state had prevalence equal to or greater than 25%.
  • In 2010, no state had a prevalence of obesity less than 20%. Thirty-six states had a prevalence equal to or greater than 25%; 12 of these states (Alabama, Arkansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and West Virginia) had a prevalence equal to or greater than 30%.
slide9

Obesity Trends* Among U.S. AdultsBRFSS,1990, 2000, 2010

(*BMI 30, or about 30 lbs. overweight for 5’4” person)

2000

1990

2010

No Data <10% 10%–14% 15%–19% 20%–24% 25%–29% ≥30%

obesity tends statewide
Obesity tends Statewide
  • F as in Fat: How Obesity Threatens America's Future 2011 - Trust for America's Health
bariatric surgeries
Bariatric Surgeries
  • Gastric Bypass
health implications
Health Implications
  • Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type II
  • Cancers (breast, colon, endometrial)
  • Hypertension
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Liver/gallbladder disease
  • Sleep apnea
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Gynecological problems (abnormal menses/infertility)
                  • Source:CDC
diabetes mellitus
Diabetes Mellitus
  • Disease marked by a lack of blood glucose homeostasis
  • Two Types Discussed:
    • Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM)
    • Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (NIDDM)
symptoms iddm
Symptoms IDDM
  • Frequent urination (polyuria)
  • Unusual thirst (polydypsia)
  • Extreme hunger
  • Unusual weight loss
  • Extreme fatigue and irritability
                  • Source: ADA
symptoms niddm
Symptoms NIDDM
  • Any of the type I symptoms
  • Frequent infections
  • Blurred vision
  • Slow healing wounds
  • Tingling/numbness in hands and feet
  • Recurring skin, gum, bladder infections
etiology iddm
Etiology IDDM
  • Autoimmune disorder
  • Immune system attacks insulin producing cells of the pancreas
etiology niddm
Etiology NIDDM
  • Tissue insensitivity:
    • May be due to genetic factors exacerbated by visceral fat
    • May be worsened by hyperglycemia
    • NIDDM comprise 90% of all diabetics