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From Empires to Bondage: Bringing Africans to the Americas PowerPoint Presentation
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From Empires to Bondage: Bringing Africans to the Americas

From Empires to Bondage: Bringing Africans to the Americas

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From Empires to Bondage: Bringing Africans to the Americas

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  1. From Empires to Bondage: Bringing Africans to the Americas

  2. 3 Main Empires • Ghana • Mali • Songhay • Three areas are of great importance because so many enslaved Africans hailed from these places.

  3. Ghana • West Africa (eastern Senegal, southwestern Mali, southern Mauritania) • Camel revolutionized trade • Kumbi Saleh (center of important trade connecting West Africa to the Mediterranean countries) • Gold/Salt

  4. Mali • Includes parts of Nigeria, Guinea forests • Mansa Musa attracted attention with wealth from Ghana’s gold/salt mines • Elaborate mosques built in Timbuktu, Jenne, Gao • Timbuktu (highly respected intellectual/commercial center)

  5. Songhay • Niger Region/Mali Empire • Sonni Ali • Used his Hajj to connect with scholars and other heads of state/strengthen the empire & expand Islam into West Africa • Standardized trade, policed trade routes, instituted bureaucratic system of government

  6. Slavery in Africa • Property of the chief family • Enslaved as a penalty for a crime • Captured in war • Human sacrifices • Without the same rights and privileges accorded to free members • (With Muslim invasion)purchasing more common than capturing • Men (military/domestic services) • Women (harem) • Not as harsh as in the Americas

  7. Launching the European Slave Trade • Henry the Navigator (Portuguese Prince) • 1444 (1st voyage that resulted in the capture of 240 Africans in Lisbon) • Within 10 years (imported 1,000 a year) • Captives converted to Christianity • Portuguese ruled slave trade for nearly a century • Demand for slave labor increased with the cultivation of sugar

  8. African Slavery in Latin America and the Caribbean • 1502 (1st African slaves to arrive to Hispanola) • Sugar mill • Given little food to eat/find in between hours • Africans helped build the New World by working as bricklayers, plasterers, and blacksmiths. They also planted, maintained crops, attended animals and cooked & cleaned • Spain/Portugal established the economic framework tying slave labor to industrial enterprises

  9. Dealing with life as a slave in the New World • 1. White elite • 2. Mestizos • 3. Mulattos • 4. Native Americans • 5. Africans • Ladinos (AfricaSpain) • Bozales (Africa Americas) • Criollos (born in the Americas) • Received Spanish names. Last names are omitted • Ex: Jose Angola • Marriage was acceptable/Mixed was not • Zambos • Greater cultural retention (population imbalance)

  10. Seeking Freedom • Granted freedom by masters • Freed elderly, loyal slaves & children • Slaves purchased freedom • Cimaroones(escapees who formed Maroon communities in remote areas) • Yanga (first and well known group in Mexico)

  11. Founding of Black America • 1619-Jamestown, VA (official arrival of Africans into the US) 20+/- • 1649-300 lived in VA • Treatment like indentured servants • 1640 (John Punch) • 1662-VA statute-mothers status determined child’s freedom • 1661 (MD) 1667 (VA) Christian coversion didn’t change slave status

  12. Why Africans? • Native Americans (unsatisfactory) • Dark skin • Strong, adept at agriculture • Labor was accessible and affordable

  13. Triangular Trade • 1. Shipment of goods left England(London, Bristol, Liverpool) for Africa • 2. In West Africa, goods were swapped for captured Africans who journeyed to the Americas • 3. In Americas, Africans were unloaded and replaced with hot commodities (molasses, rum, sugar, etc) before heading back to England

  14. Triangular Slave Trade • http://www.liverpoolmuseums.org.uk/ism/slavery/triangle.aspx