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The Progressive Era. 1900 - 1920. Middle Class Movement. Middle class emerged in late 1800s – product of industrialization Professionals, managers, “white collar” workers Increasingly segregated from working class Primarily concerned with urban, industrial problems

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middle class movement
Middle Class Movement
  • Middle class emerged in late 1800s – product of industrialization
    • Professionals, managers, “white collar” workers
    • Increasingly segregated from working class
  • Primarily concerned with urban, industrial problems
    • Rapid growth of cities exacerbated problems
    • Concerned about crime, alcoholism, prostitution, and unsanitary & unsafe living & working conditions
  • Progress entailed both efficiency & justice
    • Elitist & democratic simultaneously
    • Linked to industrialists, who provided money for new research universities & social research efforts
  • Advocated “scientific” social reform – solutions based on social science research
urban social work
Urban Social Work
  • Settlement Houses
    • Jane Addams est. Hull House in Chicago (1889)
    • Secular missionaries – lived in foreign neighborhoods & tried to “uplift” working class immigrants
  • Charity Organization Societies pooled & coordinated resources
  • G. Stanley Hall & John Dewey advocated educational reform to create better citizens
    • 18 million children in public schools in 1910 (up from 7 million in 1870)

Jane Addams

Hull House

national association for the advancement of colored people
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
  • NAACP founded in 1909 by whites & blacks
    • Whites like Oswald Garrison Villard were grandchildren of abolitionists
    • Blacks like W.E.B. DuBois were frustrated middle-class professionals
    • challenged Jim Crow laws in court
      • Guinn v. Oklahoma (1915) invalidated grandfather clauses
      • Buchanan v. Warley(1917) banned residential segregation ordinances
  • National Urban League founded in 1910 to promote economic development

W.E.B. DuBois

immigration restriction
Immigration Restriction
  • Immigration Restriction League
    • Led by Prescott F. Hall & Robert D. Ward
    • Advocated literacy test to keep out “undesirable” southern & eastern European immigrants
  • Eugenics
    • Charles Davenport founded Eugenics Record Office on Long Island
    • Advocated sterilization of criminals & mentally disabled
    • Margaret Sanger advocated birth control and abortion for eugenic reasons

Harry Laughlin &

Charles Davenport

the role of women
The Role of Women
  • Cult of “true womanhood”
    • women as moral guardians of family & society
    • Used to demand voting rights
  • Upper & middle-class women led many reform groups
    • Women’s Christian Temperance Union
    • Children’s Aid Society
    • Settlement houses
  • Bolstered argument for women’s suffrage

Frances Willard

taking on the party machines
Taking on the Party Machines
  • Opposed machines as both antidemocratic & inefficient
  • City gov’t reforms were antidemocratic:
    • Expert Commissions to replace city councils
    • Professional City Managers to administer affairs
  • Other reforms were more democratic:
    • Direct Primaries took control of nominations away from party leaders
    • Initiative & Referendum allowed voters to bypass legislature & enact laws directly
    • Recall elections allowed removal of unpopular officials before term expired
pres theodore roosevelt 1901 1909
Pres. Theodore Roosevelt (1901-1909)
  • Added 150 million acres to forest preserves
  • Dept. of Commerce & Labor created (1903)
  • Pure Food & Drug Act & Meat Inspection Act (1906) regulated food industry
  • Hepburn Act (1906) gave ICC authority to set maximum railroad rates
  • Broke up Northern Securities Trust (1904)
  • Mediated United Mine Workers’ strike (1902)
pres william howard taft 1909 1913
Pres. William Howard Taft (1909-1913)
  • Busted more trusts than T.R., but had pro-business reputation
  • Added to forest preserves, but angered conservationists by firing Gifford Pinchot
  • Mann Act (1910) outlawed “white slave trade”
  • Mann-Elkins Act (1910) strengthened ICC further
  • 16th & 17th Amendments passed by Congress in 1913
the 1912 election
The 1912 Election
  • Roosevelt unsuccessfuly challenged Taft for the G.O.P. nomination
  • Roosevelt then formed Progressive (“Bull Moose”) Party
  • Woodrow Wilson won Democratic nomination & election
pres woodrow wilson 1913 1921
Pres. Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)
  • Federal Reserve Act (1913) created modern monetary system
    • 12 banks rediscount member banks’ loans
    • Notes backed 40% by gold, 60% by commercial paper
    • Sets “prime” interest rate, thus able to expand or contract credit & money supply
  • Underwood Tariff (1913) lowered rates & est. graduated income tax
  • Clayton Antitrust Act (1914) outlawed price discrimination, tying agreements & interlocking directorates
  • Federal Trade Commission (1914) created to regulate
wilson cont
Wilson (cont.)
  • Federal Farm Loan Act (1916) created 12 banks to make low-interest loans to farmers (part of Subtreasury Plan)
  • Adamson Act (1916) mandated 8-hour day & time and a half for overtime for railroad workers
  • Keating-Owen Act (1916) banned goods made by child labor from interstate commerce, but overturned by Supreme Court
  • 18th & 19th Amendments (1918, 1919) added to Constitution
the progressive amendments
The Progressive Amendments
  • 16th Amendment (1913) allowed for a graduated income tax
  • 17th Amendment (1913) mandated direct election of U.S. Senators
  • 18th Amendment (1919) permitted prohibition of alcohol
  • 19th Amendment (1920) granted right to vote to women