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Sense & Avoid for UAV Systems. ASAS TN 2 Meeting, Glasgow – September 12 th 2006. Agenda. What is a UAV System The Sense & Avoid Function for UAV Systems Relationship with Air Traffic Control Potential solutions Conclusion. WHAT IS A UAV SYSTEM ?. UAV AIR SEGMENT. AIR VEHICLE.

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sense avoid for uav systems

Sense & Avoid for UAV Systems

ASAS TN 2 Meeting, Glasgow – September 12th 2006

agenda
Agenda
  • What is a UAV System
  • The Sense & Avoid Function for UAV Systems
    • Relationship with Air Traffic Control
  • Potential solutions
  • Conclusion

Aerospace

what is a uav system
WHAT IS A UAV SYSTEM ?

UAV AIR SEGMENT

AIR VEHICLE

MISSION PAYLOAD

AVIONICS

PROPULSION

DATALINK

LAUNCH & RECOVERY /

TAKE OFF & LANDING

SYSTEM

GROUND CONTROL STATION

OPERATORS

UAV GROUND SEGMENT

Aerospace

slide4

UAV Systems live in a complex world

00110011001000110

0011001100100011011101001001001110

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ground control station
Ground Control Station

Payload operator

Mission controller

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applications
Applications
  • UAV Systems have a high probability to be developed for an increasing number of applications :
    • Military systems : surveillance and target designation (ISTAR), countermeasures, weapon delivery, etc...
    • Security : border surveillance, maritime surveillance, anti-terrorism, sensitive sites surveillance, etc...
    • Civil applications : forest fire detection, pollution detection, agriculture, fishing, etc...

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uav systems specificities and constraints
UAV Systems specificities and constraints
  • “No Pilot on board” implies :
    • Situation awareness only based on data acquired by sensors, downloaded and analysed by to the ground operator (not equivalent to a pilot)
    • Latency exist due to the data transfer between the Air Vehicle and the ground station (up and down)
    • New failure configurations :
      • Loss of Data Link : a sufficient level of autonomy is necessary
      • Sensor Failure may be critical
    • No pilot able to “See and Avoid” , or “Detect and Avoid” neither in VMC nor in IFR

The « Sense And Avoid » function replaces the « detect and avoid »

in all situations

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slide8

The Sense & Avoid Function

  • The global objective is to allow UAV Systems to operate safely within the non segregated civil and military airspace on a routinely basis.
  • For this purpose, the UAV must be able to identify and be identified by the surrounding traffic as well as by the ATC.
  • Sense & Avoid solutions must be agreed by Airworthiness and Operations authorities, and economically reasonable for Industry.
  • Sense and Avoid solutions are a must for UAV Systems, but may lead to benefits for manned aircraft safety.

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regulation approach
Regulation approach
  • Demonstrate an Equivalent Level of Safety between manned and unmanned aircraft
  • Make the difference between manned and unmanned aircraft transparent to ATC and to other users
  • However, UAV have specific characteristics to be known by ATC

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basic needs for sense avoid
Basic needs for Sense & Avoid
  • Sense & Avoid should basically offer the capability
  • To provide traffic awareness to the pilot / operator
  • To perform avoidance manoeuvre in case of high collision risk
    • Traffic awareness :
  • Co-operative traffic
      • Surrounding traffic carrying “Off the shelf” equipment enabling exchanges, like Transponders Mode S, or emerging technologies like ASAS/ADS-B
  • Non co-operative traffic
      • Air vehicles not fitted with such equipment : general aviation, gliders, balloons, parachutes, ...
      • Then the solution should need new sensors to replace visual acquisition
    • Avoidance manoeuvre :
  • Safety net to be performed timely, based on traffic information and if possible shared decisions
      • Typical current answer is the TCAS

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additional needs
Additional needs
  • A global situation awareness system should also include :
    • Terrain awareness
      • TAWS are mandatory on most of the aircraft
      • Terrain collision avoidance is also a need, in UAV Systems, for safety of on ground population
    • Weather awareness
      • The on-ground pilot must also be aware of weather threats (precipitations, windshears, …) in order to avoid hazardous situations
  • Global situation awareness should be equivalent for manned and unmanned aircraft

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existing co operative technology tcas ii

Mode S #2 to TCAS #1

    • I am aircraft #2
    • I am at 29 000 ft
  • TCAS #1 to Mode S #2
    • Who are you?
    • What is your altitude?
  • Mode S #1 to TCAS #2
    • I am aircraft #1
    • I am at 27 000 ft

-08

Existing co-operative technology : TCAS II

Climb !

  • Automatic Modes must be introduced
  • Safety Case to be developed

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non co operative technologies
Non co-operative technologies
  • Technologies available for Non Co-operative traffic :
    • Light, medium range radars
      • All weather recognition of other traffic by UAV
      • Transfer of traffic information to Ground Operator
      • Retasking by Ground Operator
      • Automatic retasking ?
    • EO/IR techniques
      • Specific EO cameras: low cost solution
      • Can be improved by IR
      • Why not use EO/IR payload when available (en route) ?
  • Flight Tests / Simulations must be performed
  • Safety Case to be developed
  • Non co-operative technologies should complement co-operative

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emerging technologies
Emerging technologies
  • ASAS / ADS-B may be useful for UAV Systems :
    • ADS-B OUT : transfer of information (location, speed, UAV identification...) from UAV to other users and ATC
    • ADS-B IN : Improved traffic situational awareness for UAV operators
    • If possible in the future : 4D trajectories exchange
    • Potential delegation of specific spacing tasks to UAV Operators, like:
      • Sequencing and Merging
  • TIS-B (Traffic Information Services – Broadcast)
    • ground station may broadcast aircraft information gathered by various means
  • Civil aviation emerging technologies may provide anticipated and consolidated situation awareness to UAV operators

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potential sense avoid solutions

STRATEGIC AWARENESS

TACTICAL AWARENESS

Management of potential hazards:

  • Terrain
  • Traffic
  • Weather

Alerts on threats

  • Terrain
  • Traffic
  • Weather
Potential Sense & Avoid solutions
  • Technologies
    • Technologies exist to provide a Sense & Avoid system for UAV
    • A mix of co-operative and non co-operative techniques is likely to be necessary
    • ASAS / ADS-B techniques seem promising for Sense & Avoid
  • Final system
    • Should provide a global situation awareness to UAV Operators in any configuration of traffic

Automatic

Alert to Ground Operator

Managed by Ground Operator & ATC

REACTIVE

MODES

Safety Net

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conclusion
Conclusion
  • UAV Systems are newcomers in the Air Traffic
  • ADS-B / ASAS techniques may be a good answer to Sense & Avoid issues for UAV Systems, and need to be analysed as such
  • Consequently, UAV Systems may be potential actors within the ADS-B / ASAS world and may have to exchange information with other users and ATC
  • Developments made for UAV Systems (automatic modes, enhanced situation awareness, ...) might reciprocally be beneficial to other civil aviation applications.

Aerospace