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Saturday, April 18 Upcoming deliverables Collaborative and Social Computing: History, Examples, Advances and Challenges Deliverables Presentation Plans due April 24 A resource you will find useful: http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~carlis/talk-on-talking.pdf Exam on April 24

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saturday april 18
SEng 5115Saturday, April 18
  • Upcoming deliverables
  • Collaborative and Social Computing: History, Examples, Advances and Challenges
deliverables
SEng 5115Deliverables
  • Presentation Plans due April 24
    • A resource you will find useful: http://www-users.cs.umn.edu/~carlis/talk-on-talking.pdf
  • Exam on April 24
    • Sample will be posted Monday
  • Project Presentations – May 2
  • Change List due May 2
  • Evaluation Report due May 4
social computing the bottom line
SEng 5115Social Computing: The Bottom Line
  • People are social animals
  • As soon as computer technology allowed it, people began to use it for social purposes
slide4
1950s

SEng 5115

who used computers
1950s

Scientists / no one

1960-1970s

Programmers

1980s-1990s

Professionals

1990s-current

People

Who used computers

SEng 5115

shared real time editing
SEng 5115Shared Real-time Editing

Shared Real-Time Editing

slide15
SEng 5115

Shared (Asynchronous) Editing

blogging
SEng 5115Blogging
  • Personal / small audience blogs
    • Big question: Why reveal yourself?
    • A teen thing? (2004: 91% between 15 and 29; 51% between 13 and 19)‏
  • Political blogs… & other topically-oriented blogs
    • Co-optation? (Edwards, McCain, …)‏
  • Mainstream media co-opted blogs
  • Employee blogs: Microsoft, Google, etc.
    • Product blogs
    • http://blog.outer-court.com/archive/2005-10-23-n80.html
  • Photo blogs
    • fotolog.net
  • Video blogs
    • mnstories.com/
  • Class blogs
    • Failure stories
overview of the rest of class
SEng 5115Overview of the rest of class
  • History
  • Themes and dimensions
  • Awareness
  • Collective intelligence
  • Revenge of the social scientists
history
SEng 5115History
  • A vision
    • Vannevar Bush, As We May Think http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/194507/bush
  • A demo
    • Doug Engelbart, 1968
    • http://sloan.stanford.edu/MouseSite/1968Demo.html
      • Clips: 12, 8, 19, 23, 25
overview
SEng 5115Overview
  • History
  • Themes and dimensions 
  • Awareness
  • Collective intelligence
  • Revenge of the social scientists
place and time
SEng 5115

Same time (synchronous)‏

Different times (asynchronous)‏

Same place

Different places

Place and time

Meeting rooms, class rooms

In/out boards, Team rooms

Chat, IM, MUDs, text messaging, video conferencing, NetMeeting, games

Email, online communities, shared documents, social networks

purpose of the technology
SEng 5115Purpose of the technology
  • Supporting communication
  • Providing shared information spaces
  • Supporting the coordination and flow of work
type of group
SEng 5115Type of “group”
  • Pair
  • Small Group
  • Project Team
  • Organization
  • Public / anyone

Lots of real systems span these boundaries

transcending space
SEng 5115Transcending space
  • Distributed affinity groups
    • Support
    • Hobbies
    • Political organizing
    • Pedophilia, terrorism, suicide, …
anonymity and accountability
SEng 5115Anonymity and accountability
  • Power, gender, …
  • Credentials
    • http://www.nytimes.com/2007/03/05/technology/05wikipedia.html?ex=1330750800&en=f79cc41f899c2de6&ei=5090
  • Flaming / hostility
    • http://headrush.typepad.com/creating_passionate_users/
  • Personae
    • http://www.lockportjournal.com/local/local_story_011005336.html
  • Reputations
    • EBay
grudin s 8 challenges 1994
SEng 5115Grudin’s 8 Challenges (1994)

http://portal.acm.org/citation.cfm?doid=175222.175230

  • Who does the work vs. who gets the benefit?
  • Critical Mass/Prisoner’s Dilemma/Tragedy of the Commons
  • Disruption of social processes
  • Exception handling
  • Unobtrusive accessibility
  • Difficulty of evaluation
  • Failure of intuition
  • Adoption process
1 work vs benefit
SEng 51151. Work vs. benefit
  • Keeping a calendar
  • Documenting code
  • Keeping profiles up to date
  • Design group applications that offer individual benefits… even if you’re the only one using it!
  • How many users to make useful?
    • Email
    • del.icio.us
    • Organizational calendar

Your experiences?

Your Project? At work?

2 critical mass etc
SEng 51152. Critical mass, etc.
  • Social loafing / free riding
    • Why be the first one to (for example) rate an article on Slashdot?
    • Economics
3 disruption of social processes
SEng 51153. Disruption of social processes
  • Tyranny of the explicit / making work visible
    • Why did the schedule slip?
    • Open discussion of colleagues’ work
    • Protecting unschedulable time
  • Lotus Notes adoption
  • Collaborative learning tools
  • Corporate blogs vs. PR
4 exception handling
SEng 51154. Exception handling
  • Standard procedures are a myth…
  • Well, actually, they’re more like guidelines, rationalizations, explanations
  • “Moreover, not only did management fail to impose set procedures, but further ad hoc arrangements were positively encouraged by the sales department, as in the case of one customer…”
note success blurs categories
SEng 5115Note: success blurs categories
  • “Groupware technologies that most effectively support collaborative work … support all aspects of the work”
  • Email
  • Instant messaging
  • Social networking
  • Amazon
  • The Mighty Google
privacy49
SEng 5115Privacy
  • ….Favreau wasn't drunk in public. He wasn't stumbling through the Washington Metro, or even the Cap Lounge, with a bottle of Jack in one hand and the cardboard Clinton in the other. He was in the privacy (or what we used to call privacy) of a party. But we increasingly exist in a surveillance society. Not a 1984-style, Orwellian world where one Big Brother is perpetually watching, or a Soviet-style nation in which we report on one another to a central police organization. Rather we're a surveillance republic all reporting on ourselves and everyone else to everyone else, through blogs, Tweets, Facebook, and Gchat status updates, photo-sharing services, LinkedIn, YouTube . . . etc.
  • From http://www.usnews.com/blogs/robert-schlesinger/2008/12/12/barack-obama-speechwriter-jon-favreau-the-hillary-clinton-grope-and-scenes-from-the-surveillance-republic.html
privacy51
SEng 5115Privacy
  • Rep. Mark Foley, R.-Fla, resigned from Congress on Sept. 29 after certain instant messages he exchanged with underage congressional pages and former pages came to light.
overview52
SEng 5115Overview
  • History
  • Themes and dimensions
  • Awareness 
  • Collective intelligence
  • Revenge of the social scientists
awareness the ideal is was physical co location
SEng 5115Awareness – the ideal is (was) physical co-location
  • What is it we’re aware of when we share a space with others? (“Informal Workplace Communication…”)‏
    • Their existence
    • What they’re doing (right now); what they’re working on (longer term)‏
    • How busy they are
    • If they’re with other people
    • What their mood is
    • Their routines
awareness as an enabler
SEng 5115Awareness as an enabler
  • Awareness information enables informal, serendipitous interactions
    • “online equivalent of conversations by the water cooler”
  • Makes life more fun, sure, but also builds team identity, makes work more effective
waves of awareness technology
SEng 5115Waves of awareness technology
  • Wave #1 – early 90s
    • Awesome idea! Let’s make online environments that are as much like being there as possible
  • Wave #2 – mid 90s
    • Hmm… there are some hard social problems… let’s invent sophisticated technical solutions
  • Wave #3 – late 90s
    • Geez, maybe what we need is a simpler technology!
  • Wave #4 – contemporary
    • Now that the technology is ubiquitous, let’s start adding new, cool, innovative features / integrating with other social tools
some notable systems
SEng 5115Some notable systems

research

Cruiser (v) – Fish et al

1990

Portholes (v) – Dourish and Bly

Montage (v) – Tang and Rua

1995

Hudson & Smith (v)‏

Piazza – Isaacs et al

1997

ICQ

Nynex Portholes (v) – Lee et al

AIM

1998

Babble - Erickson et al

…..

2000

Connexus / Awarenex – Tang et al

Hubbub – Isaacs et al

“Availability”

Active Campus Explorer – Griswold et al

2004

Grapevine – Richards and Christensen

first wave systems
SEng 5115First wave systems
  • Let’s use the highest technology we have access to – video – to provide awareness of remote colleagues that’s as much like being there as possible
observations of these early systems
SEng 5115Observations of these early systems
  • Usage studies (the Cruiser team did a great job) uncovered important issues, notably:
    • Yeah, awareness is cool, but
    • Ugh! There’s a camera pointed at me!
  • Also: video took lots of bandwidth
  • And: good interfaces were hard to design
second wave
SEng 5115Second wave
  • Let’s think harder to design video-based awareness systems that solve the problems the first wave encountered
  • Hudson & Smith, “Techniques for Addressing Fundamental Privacy and Disruption Tradeoffs in Awareness Support Systems”
privacy preserving techniques
SEng 5115

Shadow-View

Awareness of an individual – current/recent

Audio profile

Synthetic Group Photo

Awareness of a group – current/recent

“When did Keith leave?”

Awareness of individual – over short-to-medium term past

Privacy preserving techniques
shadow view
SEng 5115Shadow-view
  • Take a static reference image of an office
  • Process live video input from the same camera to identify movement
  • Manipulate the reference image – make it darker – to show areas with recent activity
    • Update the image about every 20 seconds, gradually fading out areas where there isn’t any recent movement
video awareness reflections
SEng 5115Video awareness - reflections
  • Office is private!
  • You’ve got to be able to turn it off – block off “don’t disturb” times
  • Do you need to see someone’s face for awareness? Isn’t *presence* just enough?
  • Video awareness – way overkill! Waste of resources!
  • Wouldn’t work in shared spaces very well
  • Do people like having their image blurred?
    • Image, Appearance and Vanity in the Use of Media Spaces and Videoconference Systems - Jose Eurico Vasconcelos , Kori Inkpen , Mary Czerwinski
  • … and…
remind me why video
SEng 5115“Remind me: why video?”
  • Recall the information that awareness technology was supposed to provide about others:
    • Their existence
    • What they’re doing (right now); what they’re working on (longer term)‏
    • How busy they are
    • If they’re with other people
    • What their mood is
    • Their routines
  • Do you need video to provide such information?
  • And did I mention: “Ugh! There’s still a camera pointing at me!”
slide68
SEng 5115

Instant Messaging

important im practices
SEng 5115Important IM Practices
  • Keep IM window open...
    • Persistent context for conversation
    • Easy to revive a conversation
fourth wave status messaging everywhere
Fourth Wave – Status + Messaging Everywhere
  • Google GChat
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
overview71
SEng 5115Overview
  • History
  • Themes and dimensions
  • Awareness
  • Collective intelligence 
  • Revenge of the social scientists
overview72
SEng 5115Overview
  • History
  • Themes and dimensions
  • Awareness
  • Collective intelligence 
    • Recommender systems
    • Information filtering
    • Wikis
  • Revenge of the social scientists
wikis81
SEng 5115Wikis
  • Original vision / implementation
    • Ward Cunningham: 1994/1995
    • See /c2.com/cgi/wiki?WikiWikiWeb
  • Idea: open editing of web content
  • Lots of instances, lots of tools
  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_wikis
  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_wiki_software
  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Comparison_of_wiki_software
wikipedia
SEng 5115Wikipedia
  • Anyone can edit
    • Well... en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Flagged_revisions
    • Interesting read: http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/gadgets-and-tech/features/is-wikipedia-cracking-up-1543527.html
  • Recent changes
  • Watchlists
  • Massive amounts of discussion and massive social conventions
your experience
SEng 5115Your experience?
  • Wikipedia?
  • Other wikis?
  • Success / failures?
  • What's a wiki useful for anyway?
slide84
SEng 5115
  • Studying Cooperation and Conflict between Authors with history flow Visualizations
  • Fernanda Viegas, Martin Wattenberg, and Kushal Dave
summary
SEng 5115Summary
  • Developed history flow visualization
  • Applied it to a (presumably) hand-selected sample of 70 or so Wikipedia pages
  • Identified some interesting patterns
    • Contribution of different authors
    • Vandalism + repair
    • Edit wars
  • Did some statistical analysis
    • Mean/median time to repair one type of vandalism
history flow
SEng 5115history flow
  • http://www.research.ibm.com/visual/projects/history_flow/
  • http://www.research.ibm.com/visual/projects/history_flow/gallery.htm
quantifying impact of edits
SEng 5115Quantifying impact of edits
  • From Priedhorsky et al, GROUP 2007
rapidity of damage repair
Persistence

# incidents

≥ 1 view

58%

≥ 10 views

31%

≥ 100

11%

≥ 1,000

0.75% - 16k

≥ 10,000

0.06% - 1.3k

Rapidity of damage repair

i.e., 42% had no impact

wikiscanner
WikiScanner
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WikiScanner
issues
SEng 5115Issues
  • history flow visualizations – useful?
    • How confident are you in the results?
  • Are the results general / representative?
  • What do we know about fixing “vandalism” on Wikipedia after reading this article?
    • Why do users watch?
    • How many users have to be watching?
    • How many users have to be beneficent?
issues93
SEng 5115Issues
  • Computational definitions of “edit wars”, “vandalism”, etc.?
    • See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/User:AntiVandalBot
  • Coordination and conflict on Wikipedia
    • Niki Kittur – kittur.org/research.html
overview95
SEng 5115Overview
  • History
  • Themes and dimensions
  • Awareness
  • Collective intelligence
  • Revenge of the social scientists 
slide97
SEng 5115

I could beon the list, make a difference

…aaah

Nine thousand? No one will care about the two reviews I was going to write …*sigh*

And get personal recognition

…mmm

He looks kinda dorky, too.

…I’m outta here.

the collective effort model karau williams 1993
SEng 5115The collective effort model(Karau & Williams 1993)‏

Individualperformance

Individualoutcomes

Individualvalue of outcomes

Individualmotivation

Individualeffort

+

Contributionto group performance

Individual valueof group outcomes

Groupperformance

Groupoutcomes

using the cem
SEng 5115Using the CEM

Individualperformance

Individualoutcomes

Individualvalue of outcomes

Problem:motivate studentsto workon group projects

Individualmotivation

Individualeffort

+

Contributionto group performance

Individual valueof group outcomes

People who think they matter work harder

Groupperformance

Groupoutcomes

using the cem100
SEng 5115Using the CEM

Individualperformance

Individualoutcomes

Individualvalue of outcomes

Problem:motivate studentsto workon group projects

Individualmotivation

Individualeffort

+

Contributionto group performance

Individual valueof group outcomes

Compose groups of people with unique skills

Groupperformance

Groupoutcomes

using the cem101
SEng 5115Using the CEM

People who earn wanted rewards work harder

Individualperformance

Individualoutcomes

Individualvalue of outcomes

Problem:motivate studentsto workon group projects

Individualmotivation

Individualeffort

+

Contributionto group performance

Individual valueof group outcomes

Compose groups of people with unique skills

Groupperformance

Groupoutcomes

using the cem102
SEng 5115Using the CEM

Give part of the grade on an individual basis

Individualperformance

Individualoutcomes

Individualvalue of outcomes

Problem:motivate studentsto workon group projects

Individualmotivation

Individualeffort

+

Contributionto group performance

Individual valueof group outcomes

Compose groups of people with unique skills

Groupperformance

Groupoutcomes

think different ludford et al 2004
SEng 5115Think Different(Ludford et al. 2004)‏
  • Movie discussion forums
    • Pick relevant items to a discussion
    • Find items few members have rated
    • Tell some about “uniqueness”
  • Hypothesis (confirmed): more posts‏
the virtues of the many
SEng 5115

Dan CosleyHelping Hands7-11-6

The virtues of the many
  • Scale (Slashdot 2003)‏
  • Speed (Viégas et al. 2004)‏
  • Robustness against change
  • Direction-setting
  • Personal growth (Lave 1993)‏
the collective effort model
SEng 5115The collective effort model

People who earn wanted rewards work harder

People with lower costswork harder

Individualperformance

Individualoutcomes

Individualvalue of outcomes

Individualmotivation

Individualeffort

+

Contributionto group performance

Individual valueof group outcomes

People who think they matter work harder

Committed members work harder

Groupperformance

Groupoutcomes

systems that motivate
SEng 5115Systems that motivate
  • Reduce the cost of contributing
    • Help people find tasks
    • Intelligent task routing
  • Help people believe contributions matter
    • Editorial review
    • Who can review, when?

People with lower costswork harder

Individualperformance

Individualeffort

Contributionto group performance

People who think they matter work harder

Groupperformance

helping people find tasks
SEng 5115

Dan CosleyHelping Hands7-11-6

Helping people find tasks
  • How do people find tasks now?
  • How can we help?
  • Does it work?
    • In MovieLens
    • In Wikipedia
  • What do we learn?
how do people find tasks110
SEng 5115

Dan CosleyHelping Hands7-11-6

How do people find tasks?
  • Randomly
  • Chronologically
how do people find tasks111
SEng 5115

Dan CosleyHelping Hands7-11-6

How do people find tasks?
  • Randomly
  • Chronologically
  • Alphabetically
intelligent task routing
SEng 5115

High Pred

Pick movies the system thinksthe user will really like

Rare Rated

Pick movies the user has ratedthat few others have

Needs Work

Pick movies that are missingthe most information

Random

Pick random movies

Intelligent task routing
  • Match people with motivating tasks!
    • Use attributes of people and tasks
the experiment
SEng 5115The experiment
  • Four groups, one per algorithm
    • About 2,000 subjects, 200 contributors
  • Count # editors, contributions, fields
slide114
SEng 5115
  • Rare rated: dominant
  • Needs work: bang for buck
  • Random: not bad here
  • High prediction: lousy
lessons learned
SEng 5115Lessons learned
  • Regression models show…
    • Rating very important
      • Rareness, not important
    • Needing work is also important
    • Rated needs work strategy implemented
  • Intelligent task routing is powerful

…at least in MovieLens

suggestbot itr in wikipedia
SEng 5115SuggestBot: ITR in Wikipedia
  • Work: much to do, hard to find
suggestbot overview
SEng 5115SuggestBot overview
  • Preprocess public Wikipedia data
    • Download dumps
    • Extract text, links, edit activity
  • Suggest items based on edit history
    • Text-based
    • User-user collaborative filtering
    • Link-following
version 2 results
SEng 5115

Recommender

Edited

Total

Percent

Coedit

29

726

4.0%

Text

34

790

4.3%

Links

25

742

3.4%

Random

8

836

1.0%

Total

96

3,094

3.1%

Version 2 results
looking ahead
Looking Ahead
  • Friday, April 24
    • Project Presentations
      • 15 minutes per group
      • goal is to communicate the interesting parts of the design, both the result and the design evolution
      • don’t simply report on process—everyone followed the same process!
looking ahead122
Looking Ahead
  • Sat, May 2
    • Final Change List is Due
      • Remember: all changes made since initial submitted prototype, plus all changes desired or major ones considered and rejected.
      • Table with headings: “issue,” “change,” “status,” “comments.”
looking ahead123
Looking Ahead
  • Friday, Apr 24 – Exam
    • Two hour exam, plus time for course evaluations
    • Open Book; write or type on your laptop
      • laptop users must turn in floppy or e-mail by end of class (be sure to name file with YOUR name)
    • You will receive printouts of screens from a real website or application
      • the printouts only cover some of the website – your answers must be based on the print-out, not live exploration
looking ahead124
Looking Ahead
  • Exam, cont.
    • Questions will cover activities you’ve done in the project, and discussion questions related to those activities.
    • Answer efficiently; mark up prototype; use bullet lists
looking ahead125
Looking Ahead
  • Monday, May 4
    • Final Prototype is Due
      • Full set of “screen” shots, plus any needed explanation to understand it.
    • Group Evaluation Due
      • What grade do we deserve as a group?
      • Why?
      • How did we work together qualitatively
        • how was the work divided up?
        • did we work together, separately, a mix?
        • how did we coordinate?
looking ahead126
Looking Ahead
  • Monday, May 4
    • Assessment of Individual Contributions
      • collective if possible, individual otherwise
      • qualitative description of each person’s role or contribution
      • numeric (percentage) assessment of each individual’s contribution to the project’s success
        • not merely a measure of effort, but of effective contribution
looking ahead127
Looking Ahead
  • Monday, May 4
    • Individual Lessons Learned Essay
      • what did you learn in this class?
      • or, what didn’t you learn in this class that you feel you should have?
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