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NRG Dunkirk coal power plant on Lake Erie conducted co-firing tests with 10% wood feedstocks in fall 2002 PowerPoint Presentation
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Developing Woody Biomass Resources for Bioproducts and Bioenergy in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States T.A. Volk, L.P. Abrahamson, E.H. White, A.J. Stipanovic, T.E. Amidon, J.P. Nakas State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY

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Developing Woody Biomass Resources for Bioproducts and Bioenergy in the Northeastern and Midwestern United StatesT.A. Volk, L.P. Abrahamson, E.H. White, A.J. Stipanovic, T.E. Amidon, J.P. Nakas

State University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY

SUNY Center for Sustainable and Renewable Energy

Closed-Loop Willow Biomass Growth Cycle

Wood Manufacturing Residues

Forest Residues

Environmental/Rural Development Benefits

  • Net Energy ratio of 1:55 @ farm gate
  • CO2 neutral feedstock
  • Reduced NOx and SOx emissions
  • Reduce use of petroleum for chemicals, products and fuels
  • Bird density & diversity similar to natural shrub and forest habitat
  • Soil microarthropod species density and richness similar to old fields
  • Soil carbon levels stabilized
  • Soil erosion minimized with cover crops
  • 75 jobs created for every 10,000 acres of willow crops planted

NRG Dunkirk coal power plant on Lake Erie conducted co-firing tests with 10% wood feedstocks in fall 2002

Bioenergy Options

  • Cogeneration @ 100% – heat and power
  • Co-firing in existing power company coal boilers -Minor modification costs

-Co-fire wood up to 20% by energy input

Establishment year growth

One-year-old after coppice

Forest residues from timber stand improvement operations for timber, wildlife, and recreation can produce 5 to 10 green tons per acre

Harvest after leaf fall.

Large quantities of wood residues from primary and secondary wood product manufacturers are available

Three-year-old willow after coppice: can produce 30 green tons per acre

“Woody” or “Lignocellulosic” Biomass Feedstocks

SUNY-ESF Integrated Modular Wood Biorefinery Partnership

[Module I]: Bio-Delignification of woody biomass by Fungi or Recombinant Enzymes (Biopulping) – 30% less energy required

Biorefinery process

Energy flow back to

[Module IX]:Thermodepolymerization (TDP): Exploit high temperature, high-pressure pyrolysis of woody materials in water to yield medium BTU fuel gas and chemical feedstocks. (with Youngstown State University)

McNeil Generating Station & wood gasifier of Burlington Electric Department

Wood thrush nesting in willow

[Module IV]:NREL Clean Fractionation (CF) Process: To compliment I and II, optimize the organosolv fractionation technology developed at NREL to isolate cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin from “biopulped” feedstocks. (3 Products)

Partially Delignified Biomass

  • Additional Applications – Willow Crops
  • Riparian buffer zones & nutrient management
  • Waste water management
  • Phytoremediation
  • Brownfield restoration
  • Alternative landfill covers
  • Living snowfences
  • Carbon source for manure

composting

  • Gasification - 30% more efficient

[Module II]: Hemicellulose Extraction from wood feedstocks:Exploit the bio-enhanced accessibility of wood to selectively remove the hemicellulose fraction using water or aqueous solvents.

Hemicellulose Utilization: a) xylan processing into biodegradable polymers, blends and composites, (b) Acid catalyzed conversion of hemicelluloses for the production of xylitol, 2,3-butanediol and furan polymers [Module VI]. & Production of Biodegradable Plastics by exploiting microbial fermentation to yield biodegradable, thermoplastic polyesters[Module VIII].

  • Fuel Cell Technology

Process By-products

[Module III]: Delignification - Oxygen and Catalytic Based, Sulfur-Free Pulping:Separate and isolate the cellulose and lignin fractions of wood, after biopulping and hemicellulose removal, using lower energy and a reduced chemical charge compared to existing pulping processes that use sulfur-based compounds.

Cellulose Utilization: a) Application of cellulose fibrils and nanocrystals in new materials including composites and chiral separation media, (b) conversion of low fiber quality cellulose to glucose, ethanol and hydroxymethyl furfural, (c) papermaking. [Module V]

SUNY-ESF’s molten carbonate fuel cell – initially fueled by natural gas which will be replaced by syngas from willow biomass

Biorefinery Partners:

National Labs: University Collaborators:jDOE National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) jSyracuse University j USDA Western Regional Center jVirginia Polytechnic Institute

Industrial Collaborators: jYoungstown State University

j BioFine jEastman Chemical Company jCornell University

Research Institutes: jProcess NMR Associates jGranit SA jInstitute of Paper Science and Technology jAndritz Inc.jBioPulping International jEmpire State Paper Research Institute

jNew Holland jAntares Inc.

Non-Participation Supporters:jNew York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) jAmerican Forest and Paper Association – Agenda 2020 Chief Technology Officer Committee jRayonier

Sulfur-Free Lignin Utilization: Synthesis of adhesives and thermosetting polymers based on sulfur-free lignin and the pyrolysis of lignin to yield organic chemicals and fuel gases. [Module VII]

Rural development through commercialization of willow biomass crops

Acknowledgments: This work is conducted with support from the US Dept. of Energy through the Biomass Power for Rural Development Program, the New York State Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), and the US Dept. of Agriculture Cooperative State Research Education and Extension Service (USDA CSREES).

Portfolio of New Bioproducts and Energy Resources from Wood: bio-based chemicals (levulinic acid), biofuels/biodiesel, biodegradable plastics/thermoplastic polyesters, composite materials, thermoset polymers, polymers, ethanol, adhesives, sulfur-free pulping/paper