BIO 210 Lab Handout #7B – Appendicular Skeleton
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BIO 210 Lab Handout #7B – Appendicular Skeleton Pectoral Girdle – two bones: 1) Clavicle – anterior collarbone 2) Scapula – posterior shoulder blade; two prominent processes; 1) acromion – enlarged end of the spine of scapula; connects to the clavicle

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BIO 210 Lab Handout #7B – Appendicular Skeleton

Pectoral Girdle – two bones:

1) Clavicle – anterior collarbone

2) Scapula – posteriorshoulder blade; two prominent processes;

1) acromion – enlarged end of the spine of scapula;

connects to the clavicle

2) coracoid process – attachment for some upper limb muscles

3) glenoid fossa –socket for head of arm bone

4) superior angle

5) inferior angle – landmark for listening to lung sounds

Clavicle

Acromion

Superior angle

Corocoid process

Glenoid fossa

Inferior angle

Acromion

Coracoid process

Spine

Glenoid fossa

Posterior View

Lateral View

Hand –

In the anatomical position: palms forward, thumbs out

Carpal – wrist; 8 marble-size bones arranged in two irregular rows.

The distal row - medial to lateral

hamate - capitate - trapezoid & trapezium.

The proximal row - medial to lateral

pisiform - triquetrum - lunate & scaphoid.

Metacarpals – palm, 5 bones form the knuckles

Numbered 1-2-3-4-5 beginning with the thumb

Phalanges – fingers,

Numbered 1-2-3-4-5 beginning with the thumb

Each finger has 3 phalanges; proximal, medial & distal.

Pollux - the thumb; no medial phalanx

Distal

Medial

Proximal

IV

III

II

V

Capitate

I

Hamate

Trapezoid

Pisiform

Trapezium

Triquetrum

Scaphoid

Lunate

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Greater tubercle

Lesser tubercle

Deltoid tuberosity

Coronoid fossa

Olecranon fossa

Lateral epicondyle

Capitulum

Medial epicondyle

Trochlea

Posterior view

Upper Limb

Humerus – brachium; articulates with the scapula and with the radius & ulna at the elbow

1) head – smooth & hemispherical, proximal end and fits into the glenoid fossa of the scapula

2) greater tubercle – lateral

3) lesser tubercle – medial

4) deltoid tuberosity – midway on the lateral side, v-shaped and rough; deltoid muscle attachment

5) capitulum – dital & lateral ball-like condyle: articulates with radius

6) trochlea – medial condyle, hourglass tipped on its side; articulates with ulna

7) coronoid fossa – superior to the trochlea on anterior surface;

8) olecranon fossa – posterior surface, superior to trochlea

9) medial “funny bone” & lateral epicondyles – muscle attachment points

For anterior view,

Place Head in superior position

Radial & coronoid fossas

are visible. Larger, deeper

olecranon fossa is posterior

Right forearm in anatomical position

Antebrachium - 2 parallel bones

Rradius – carries the hand; lateral bone in anatomical position;

Head – proximal, disc-shaped, articulates with humerus capitulum

Radial tuberosity – prominence on medial aspect of shaft; tendon

of biceps muscle attaches here

styloid process – attachment for wrist ligaments

Ulna – forms the elbow joint with the humerus; medial bone of the forearm

Olecranon process – grips the trochlea to form a hinge joint;

Coronoid process – grips the trochlea to form elbow hinge joint;

Trochlear notch – deep concavity between olecranon & coronoid

processes

Styloid process – ligament runs to the wrist

Head

Radial tuberosity

Ulna

Radius

Olecranon process

Styloid process

Styloid process

Trochlear notch

Coronoid process

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Ulna


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Pelvic Girdle –

2os coxae (hip bones) united anteriorly at the pubic symphysis and posteriorly at the sacrum and coccyx

Os coxae consist of 3 separate bones in childhood - ilium, ischium & pubis.

In adults, these bones are firmly fused. Names are retained to refer to different regions.

Acetabulum - deep socket where these 3 bones fuse; receives the head of the femur.

Ilium – large flaring region, major part of coxal bone;

sacroiliac joint – joint where os coxae are connected posteriorly

iliac crest – superior margin, rough, where you rest your hands on your hips

anterior superior iliac spine – where the iliac crest terminates

anterior inferior iliac spine

Ischium – the “sit-down bone” the most inferior and posterior position of the coxal bone

ischial tuberosity – most outstanding marking of the ishium; receives the weight of the body when sitting

Ischial spine – projects medially into the pelvic cavity, point of ligament attachment

greater sciatic notch – large notch superior to ischial spine; sciatic nerve and blood vessels pass through here

lesser sciatic notch – small notch just inferior to the ischial spine

Pubis – most anterior of the coxal bone; V-shaped with two rami;

in the anatomical position it is horizontal and the bladder rests upon it

pubic symphysis – fibrocartilage disc; formed midline where two pubic bones are joined

Obturator foramen – the 2 rami of the pubis run laterally to join Ischium; a few blood vessels & nerves pass through

nearly closed by a fibrous membrane; obturator = closed

Iliac crest

Ilium

Sacroilliac joint

Ilium

Anterior superior iliac spine

Sacrum

Anterior inferior iliac spine

Greater sciatic notch

Acetabulum

Ischial spine

Obturator foramen

Pubis

Lesser sciatic notch

Ischium

Ischial tuberosity

Pubic symphysis

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Femur – thigh bone; heaviest, strongest bone in the body;

Head – ball-like; articulates with the hip bone in deep acetabulum

Fovea capitis femoris – “pit of the head”; ligament attachment securing head to acetabulum

Neck – carries the head; angles laterally to join the shaft; broken hips

Greater trochanter – superior position where the neck joins the shaft;

Lesser trochanter – inferior position posterior and medial

Linea aspera – “rough line” a long vertical ridge that appears to diverge distally

Medial condyle – distal end; wheel-like; same side as femur head; articulates with tibia

Lateral condyle – distal end; opposite femur head; articulates with leg tibia

Patella – knee cap; within a tendon that secures thigh muscles to tibia

Apex – pointed end where tendon attaches

Base – flattened end;

Greater

trochanter

Neck

Head

Lesser trochanter

Base

Fovea capitis femoris

Linea aspera

Patella

Apex

Medial condyle

Lateral condyle

Leg – two bones

1) Tibia – “shin bone” is larger, more medial; articulates with femur to form knee

Tibial tuberosity – inferior to the condyles of proximal end; rough; ligament attachment

Intercondylar eminence (tubercles) – irregular projections between condyles

Anterior crest – shaft is triangular in cross section; a sharp ridge of bone on the anterior surface;

Medial malleolus – “little hammer”; rounded bony process at distal tip of tibia; medial bulge of the ankle

2) Fibula– lateralstick-like bone; shaft is heavily ridged for muscle attachment; articulates with tibia

Lateral malleolus – distal end of fibula; forms conspicuous lateral ankle bulge; articulates with the talus

Anterior crest – same as tibia

Patella

Lateral condyle

Medial condyle

Fibula

Anterior crest

Anterior crest

Tibia

Medial malleolus

Lateral malleolus

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Calcaneus

Talus

Cuboid

Navicular

Lateral cuneiform

Intermediate cuneiform

V

Medial cuneiform

IV

II

Metatarsals

I

Proximal

Phalanges

Medial

Distal

Intermediate cuneiform

#5

Medial cuneiform

#4

#2

#1

Digits

Foot – tendons of foot muscles hold bones firmly in domed position to form 3 strong arches;

Tarsals – corresponds to carpals of hand; 7 bones; body weight is carried by 2 largest most posterior bones

1) talus – “ankle” articulates with tibia & fibula superiorly

2) calcaneus – “heel bone”; Achilles tendon attaches here

3) navicular – articulates with the talus and anteriorly with cuneiforms

4,5,6) medial cuneiform, intermediate cuneiform, lateral cuneiform

form the most anterior row; articulate with metatarsals 1,2 & 3 respectively

7) cuboid – articulates with the calcaneous; anteriorly with metatarsals 4&5

Metatarsals – corresponds to metacarpals of hand;

5 bones numbered 1-2-3-4-5; always begin with the big toe.

The enlarged head of metatarsal #1 forms the ball of the foot

Phalanges - 14 bones; smaller than the fingers but general structure is same;

3 phalanges to each toe - proximal, medial & distal

Hallux – big toe; only has 2 phalanges, proximal and distal

III

Medial

#3

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