Entertainment Education COMT 480/580
Overview • Definitions • Background • Examples • Lessons Learned
Definitions • What is entertainment education? • The synergy of entertainment and education consists of deliberately combining the joy of entertainment with the empowering potential of education to achieve social progress for all. The International ee 2000 EventThe Third International Entertainment Education for Social ChangeSeptember 17-23, 2000 Arnhem and Amsterdam, the Netherlands
Definitions • Entertainment education—also termed enter‑educate, pro‑social entertainment, pro‑development entertainment, edu‑tainment and infotainment—is defined as: • the process of putting educational content in entertaining formats and messages in order to: • increase knowledge • create favorable attitudes • change overt behavior concerning an educational issue
Methodology • Role modeling (Bandura’s Social Learning Theory – We learn by identifying w/ characters and modeling their behavior when we see it’s rewarded) • Positive role models • Transitional characters • Negative role models • Efficacy • Individual • Collective
Programs • Population Communication International • www.population.org • Tinka, Tinka Sukh (Happiness Lies in Small Things) 1996 • Radio soap opera in India • Against child marriage • Gender equity • Against dowry • Girls education • Self-development • Family planning • HIV prevention
Tinka Tinka Sukh • Village like Lutsaan • Progressive & traditional • Characters identified with • Messages: • Dowry • Poonam, bride, is beaten by her husband & in-laws (negative role models) for not providing adequate dowry. She is sent back to her parents after incorrectly being accused of infidelity, and then commits suicide. • Child marriage • Kusum is married at 18, gets pregnant, & dies. • Efficacy • Sushma is left by her husband & starts a sewing school (positive role model) • Sunder, a drug addict, gets clean and finds a job. • Villagers construct a new hospital
Effects • Tinka Tinka Sukh • Poster-letter from Village of Lutsaan, India • Vowed to oppose dowry • Shyam Club supported girls’ schooling • Endorsed family planning as a cost-saver • Claimed emotional involvement with characters – • tailor id’d w/ Ramlal (pampered son who becomes a development officer) as a transitional character • Limited media access (only 60 radios for pop. 6,000)
How or why effective? • Tailor & Post-master • Opinion leaders • Diffusion of innovations (Everett Rogers) • Interpersonal communication • Transitional role model • Parasocial interaction • Tailor’s shop
Untapped Potential • Entertainment media • Most pervasive genre • Tells us how to think, speak, dress • 3 reasons it should be tapped • Development problems are huge, resources scarce • Leisure & entertainment is mega-trend • Media access growing worldwide • Positive audience reception to social messages on entertainment
Resistance • Entertainment degradation programs • Lots of sex & violence • Little media deals w/ consequences • Boredom education programs • Entertainment education • Sesame Street, PBS • Cognitive learning skills • Archie Bunker (negative role model for bigotry) • Embedded messages (Winsten, 1999) • Designated driver campaign on 77 shows, e.g. LA Law
Lessons learned • Entertainment education can be used to educate youngsters • Start-up costs high • Formative research crucial • Balance creative & communication research • Can be transferred across cultural boundaries • Economies of scale • TV content shaped by eco & political realities
Ethics of Entertainment-Education • Ethics in the field of Entertainment-Education should: • Participation • Encourage full and informed participation of all stakeholders, including audiences. • Information • Based on appropriate information • Design • Culturally tailored messages • Include careful design and monitoring of implementation processes • Monitor • Monitor effects & societal consequences
Research • Goals: • conducting and sharing research to the development of the Entertainment-Education field • fine-tuning of current research methods • new and more comprehensive approaches for formative, monitoring, and evaluation research • set a research agenda that includes study into the role of performing artists, their involvement in social subjects, and intended and unintended effects
Sustainability • expand professional expertise through continuing pre-service and in-service training and education in related professional fields • promote sound business practices that will support sustainability, including branding and marketing, to optimize cost-effectiveness with a fair and equitable financial return to all participants
Collaboration • The organizing parties of the International ee 2000 Event committed to: • develop a network of associates that will facilitate the exchange of information and materials • sustain this network, establishing and coordinating a Web site, developing a global distribution system for existing Entertainment- Education materials, and other initiatives. • plan for future meetings amongst our organizations and with other interested parties • establish awards to recognize excellence in the Entertainment-Education field
Background • E-E 2000E-E 2000 took place from September 17-23, 2000 in the Netherlands. • The E-E 2000 Event will consist of five days of interactive programs with plenary sessions, multimedia presentations, expert panels, and "real life" clusters.
Haiti: "Zanmi" Music Video • The Youth Reproductive Health project, Sept. 1995 • Target = youth between the ages of 15-24 in the metropolitan area of Port-au-Prince. • Goal = to promote reproductive health issues among youth • Context = The project was designed during a period of political unrest and financial crisis in Haiti, during the 1995 UN tightening of the embargo imposed on the country. It is the first project of its kind in Haiti.
One-week message & materials development workshop Fondation de Santé Reproductive et d'Education Familiale (FOSREF), Center for Development and Health (CDS) Johns Hopkins University Population Communication Services (JHU/PCS) Members of target audience Formative research
Message development • During the workshop the young participants developed the following materials: • a sexual responsibility game • a song for a music video • three radio spots • three photonovelas • a poster • a general information leaflet
Messages (cont’d) • ZanmiA song and music video were products of the Youth Reproductive Health Project. Their themes are: • protecting and respecting yourself and your relationships and • Sexual responsibility • Both the song and the video were produced by King Posse, a well known rap group in Haiti • with financial support from the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and technical support from ASPHA (Haitian Public Health Association).
Lyrics (translated from Creole)Let's take care! Let's control ourselves!When we are ready, So as not to have any regrets!You love me, I love you! Let's take care!You love me, I love you!Let's control ourselves!You love me, I love you! When we are ready! Rap song
Success? • “The video continued to be played on commercial TV in Haiti and the song was heard regularly on the radio. It is an excellent example of the ‘enter educate’ approach because the song is perceived by the Haitian public as just another song by King Posse and not as a song with a health-related message. Everybody, particularly adolescents, knows the lyrics of the song.” – JHU/CCP web site.