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EcoDesign for Electrical & Electronics Equipment

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  1. EcoDesign for Electrical & Electronics Equipment by Asst.Prof.Dr. Thumrongrut Mungcharoen Coordinator, Cleaner Technology Advancement Program, National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency Director, CT & EcoDesign Research Unit, Faculty of Engineering, Kasetsart University

  2. Research Team • Asst.Prof.Dr. Thumrongrut Mungcharoen • Dr.Koji Ibuki • Ms.Chantana Yuvaniyama • Mr.Seksan Papong • Ms.Viganda Varabuntoonvit

  3. TOPICS • Introduction to EcoDesign • Introduction to Research Project • Methodology and Tools • Progress and Results • Conclusion

  4. Introduction to EcoDesign • EcoDesign (Economic and Ecological Design) DfE (Design for Environment), Sustainable product design, Green design, etc. • EcoDesign is a strategy to incorporate environmental considerations into product design and development throughout the life cycle of a product. In all development stage, also need to find the right balance between ecological and economic requirements

  5. Design for Sustainable

  6. Design for Sustainable (cont.)

  7. EcoDesign Strategies • The actions that can be taken to reduce environmental impacts • Should be selected on the basis of an environmental assessment and broader analysis of the product and its market

  8. EcoDesign Strategies (cont.) • Consider in all life cycle stage • Reduce weight, toxicity, and energy consumption • Longer life time • Easy to process and assemble • Easy to transport and retain • Easy to clean, maintenance, disassemble, and reuse • Save to landfill or incinerate • Etc.

  9. Examples of driving forces for DfE • The need for increased product quality • The need to improve the image of the product and the company • The need to reduce costs • The need for innovative power • The need to increase employee motivation • Legislation • Market demand • Social environmental • Competitors • Raised energy costs and waste charges

  10. Consumer Demands of Environmental Sound Products High Germany, Sweden, Holland, Denmark, Switzerland etc. Moderate Dawning USA, France, Italy, Japan, Great Britain etc. Chile, Brasilia, Poland, Hungary, Thailand etc.

  11. 0 New Concept Development Dematerialisation Shared use of the product Integration of functions Functional optimization of product (components) 7 Optimization of end-of-life system 1 Reuse of product Selection of low-impact materials Remanufacturing/refurbishing Non-hazardous materials Recycling of materials Non-exhaustable materials Clean incineration Low energy content materials Recycled materials Recyclable materials 6 2 Optimization of initial life-time - Reduction of material + Reliability and durability Reduction in weight Esay maintenance and repair Reduction in (transport) volume Modular product structure Classic design User taking care of product 5 3 Reduction of the environmental Optimization of production techniques impact in the user stage Alternative production techniques Low energy consumption Fewer production processes Clean energy source Low/clean energy consumption Few consumables needed during use Low generation of waste 4 Clean consumables during use Few/clean production consumables Efficient distribution system No energy/auxiliary material use Less/clean packaging Efficient transport mode Priorities for the new product Efficient logistics E xisting product A DfE Tool: Lifecycle Design Strategies Wheel Brezet, J. C. and al., e., 1994, PROMISE Handleiding voor Milieugerichte Produkt Ontwikkeling (PROMISE Manual for Environmentally Focused Product Development), SDU Uitgeverij, The Hague, The Netherlands. Hemel, C. G. v. and Keldmann, T., 1996, "Applying DFX Experiences in Design for Environment," Design for X: Concurrent Engineering Imperatives, Chapmann & Hall, London, pp. 72-95.

  12. Better Resource Management Waste Prevention เป้าหมาย 2 อย่าง ของ EcoDesign พยายามให้ง่ายต่อ: Re-manufacturing รีไซเคิล การทำปุ๋ย/ ใช้ Energy recovering ลด : น้ำหนัก ความเป็นพิษ พลังงาน ยืด : อายุการใช้งาน

  13. LCA & DfE ในการออกแบบ แนวคิดด้าน DfE แนวคิดด้าน LCA Guidelines for DfE Concept of LCA การออกแบบขั้นต้น ใช้ simplified LCA to perform screening การออกแบบขั้นละเอียด ใช่ จำเป็นต้องทำ complete LCA ทำ complete LCA ขึ้นกับ ความสำคัญของผลิตภัณฑ์และขนาดของผลกระทบสิ่งแวดล้อม และ simplified LCA ไม่สามารถสนองความต้องการได้ ไม่ ผลิตภัณฑ์ Prototype ไม่ ได้ตามข้อกำหนด ของผลิตภัณฑ์ ใช่ ผลิตภัณฑ์ขั้นสุดท้าย

  14. Introduction to Research ProjectObjective To study the design and improvement of an electrical & electronic equipment by using Economic and ecological design (or EcoDesign) concept to make it comply with WEEE directive

  15. Scope & boundary • Select only one product based on the following criteria: - Potential for value added - Environmental impact - Technical feasibility • Improvement analysis is based on the result of LCA (studied by TEI)

  16. Methodology 1. Literature review about EcoDesign and WEEE Directive 2. Select one research-product (according to the criteria specified) 3. Review existing product data 4. Design questionnaires and checklists for product assessment 5. Score and evaluate existing product data

  17. Methodology (Cont.) 6. Propose design options for improvement by using EcoDesign concept and strategies as shown in the examples below. • Consider cradle to grave (material, manufacturing, transportation, use and disposal) • Reduce weigh, toxicity and energy consumption • Extend product life time • Improve management system to facilitate many process such as • Manufacturing • Disassembly • Reuse and recycle • Installation, maintenance and repair • Standard requirement 7. Analyze and evaluate the result by comparing the economic and ecological impacts of model(s) before and after the improvement using LCA 8. Conclusion and Report

  18. Product Selection • Product selected : Air Conditioner • Split type: 12,000 BTU • Criteria • Export Value • Environmental Impact • Future trend • The ability to change design

  19. Air ConditionerModel • Model AU/AH-MP13 • Condensing Unit • Fan Coil Unit • Gross weight 53 kg (40 kg +13 kg)

  20. EcoDesign Checklist for Air Conditioner

  21. Air Conditioner Assessmentfrom Checklist

  22. End of Life Options and Design Attributes Ref: Tom Clark, 1999

  23. Design for Recycling Checklist Ref: Tom Clark, 1999

  24. Design for Recycling Checklist (cont.) Ref: Tom Clark, 1999

  25. WEEE/RoHS Directive Checklist Ref: Tom Clark, 1999

  26. Design for Energy Saving Options • Use of a DC Twin Rotary Compressor Inverter • Use of an AC Twin Rotary Compressor Inverter • Use of a DC Fan Motor • Using Evaporator Coil with Grooved Tube

  27. Design for End of Life • Lead Free Solder • Use of R410A • Reduce Weight & Volume • Use of Recyclable Materials

  28. Case I: Design for Weight Reduction Old Model Present Model (2001) (2003) Net wt. kg (In/Out) 17/45 12/38 Evaporator (slit fin) 2 Row, 24 lines 2 Row, 15 lines 19 FPI 22 FPI Condenser (Grooved Tube) 1 Row, 17 FPI 1 Row, 19 FPI Front Cabinet (outdoor) Steel Plastic: PP EER 10.6 10.84 Dimension (Indoor) 897x297x189 mm 815x278x195 mm

  29. LCA Comparison of Housing: Old model & Present model

  30. LCA of Air Conditioner: Old & Present Model

  31. Case II: Use of a DC Fan Motor Present Model New Model (2003) Net wt. kg (In/Out) 12/38 12/38 Compressor type Single Rotary Single Rotary Fan Motor AC Fan Motor DC Fan Motor Energy saving (%) - 10

  32. LCA Comparison: Present Model & Use of a DC Fan Motor

  33. Case III: Use of a AC Twin Rotary Compressor Inverter Present Model New Model (2003) Net wt. kg (In/Out) 12/38 12/38 Compressor (kg) ~15.1 ~11.1 Compressor type Single Rotary AC Twin Rotary Condenser fan coil (kg) ~4.9 ~8.4 Condenser fan motor (kg) ~1.8 ~2.8 Energy saving (%) - 30

  34. LCA Comparison: Present Model & AC Twin Rotary Compressor

  35. Case IV: Use of a DC Twin Rotary Compressor Inverter Present Model New Model (2003) Net wt. kg (In/Out) 12/38 12/38 Compressor (kg) ~15.1 ~10.1 Compressor type Single Rotary DC Twin Rotary Condenser fan coil (kg) ~4.9 ~8.4 Condenser fan motor (kg) ~1.8 ~2.8 Energy saving (%) - 40-50

  36. Case V: Use of R410A Present Model New Model (2003) Net wt. kg (In/Out) 12/38 12/38 Compressor type Single Rotary Single Rotary Lubricant oil Diamond MS 56 Polyolester oil Refrigerant R22 R410A Ozone depletion 0.05 0.0 GWP 1700 1890 EER 10.8410.6<EER<10.84

  37. LCA Comparison: Present Model & Use of R410A

  38. LCA Comparison: R22 & R410A

  39. Case VI: Use of a DC Twin Rotary Compressor with R410A

  40. LCA Comparison: Old Model, Present Model & Design options

  41. Options for Improvement

  42. Eco Indicator 95 per 1 kg Solder 100 80 60 % 40 20 0 SnPb37 SnBi58 SnCu0.7 SnAg3.5 SnAg4Cu0.5 SnAg3.5Bi4.8 SnZn9 Case VII: Lead Free Solder Eco Indicator of the Solder Alloy

  43. Overview of environmentally relevant solder properties ref.: H. Griese and alt. Environmental Assessment of Lead Free Interconnection systems Proc. Symp., June 13-14, 2000.

  44. Conclusions • EcoDesign must enter the design process at the outset • EcoDesign must consider entire product life cycle • LCA & EcoDesign can be used to improve the design • Benchmarking is necessary to compare alternatives or evaluate progress

  45. Acknowledgement • Department of Foreign Trade • Sharp Appliances (Thailand) Ltd.